Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
May 31, 2018
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CytoDyn Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, AGTI and CVM, both of which are dormant entities. All intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation.
Certain prior year amounts shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the 2018 presentation. These reclassifications did not have any effect on total current assets, total assets, total current liabilities, total liabilities, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity, net loss or earnings per share.
The consolidated accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company had losses for all periods presented. The Company incurred a net loss of $50,149,681, $25,763,801 and $25,703,612 for the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, respectively, and has an accumulated deficit of $173,139,396 as of May 31, 2018. These factors, among several others, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability of assets and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain additional operating capital, complete development of its product candidates, obtain U.S. FDA approval, outsource manufacturing of the product candidates, and ultimately achieve initial revenues and attain profitability. The Company is currently engaging in significant research and development activities related to these product candidates, and expects to incur significant research and development expenses in the future primarily related to its clinical trials. These research and development activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. The Company intends to finance its future development activities and its working capital needs largely from the sale of equity and debt securities, combined with additional funding from other traditional sources. There can be no assurance, however, that the Company will be successful in these endeavors.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash is maintained at federally insured financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances. Balances in excess of federally insured limits at May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017 approximated $1.1 million and $1.5 million, respectively.
Identified Intangible Assets
The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles-Goodwill and Other, which establishes accounting standards for the impairment of long-lived assets such as intangible assets subject to amortization. The Company reviews long-lived assets to be held and used for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the undiscounted expected future cash flows over the remaining useful life of a long-lived asset group is less than its carrying value, the asset is considered impaired. Impairment losses are measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset. There were no impairment charges for the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016. The value of the Company’s patents would be significantly impaired by any adverse developments as they relate to the clinical trials pursuant to the patents acquired as discussed in Notes 7 and 9.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Clinical trial costs incurred through third parties are expensed as the contracted work is performed. Where contingent milestone payments are due to third parties under research and development collaboration arrangements or other contractual agreements, the milestone payment obligations are expensed when the milestone conditions are probable and the amount of payment is reasonably estimable.
The Company may scale-up and make commercial quantities of its product candidate prior to the date it anticipates that such product will receive final FDA approval. The scale-up and commercial production of pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for commercial use by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever. This risk notwithstanding, the Company may scale-up and build pre-launch inventories of product that have not yet received final governmental approval when the Company believes that such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity. The determination to capitalize is made once the Company (or its third party development partners) has filed a BLA, that has been acknowledged by the FDA as containing sufficient information to allow the FDA to conduct its review in an efficient and timely manner and management is reasonably certain that all regulatory and legal hurdles will be cleared. This determination is based on the particular facts and circumstances relating to the expected FDA approval of the drug product being considered. As of May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017, the Company did not have pre-launch inventory that qualified for capitalization pursuant to U.S. GAAP ASC 330 Inventory.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
At May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017, the carrying value of the Company’s cash, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of the instruments. The Company carries derivative financial instruments at fair value as required by U.S. GAAP.
Derivative financial instruments consist of financial instruments that contain a notional amount and one or more underlying variables (e.g., interest rate, security price, variable conversion rate or other variables), require no initial net investment and permit net settlement. Derivative financial instruments may be free-standing or embedded in other financial instruments. The Company follows the provisions of ASC 815, as their instruments are recorded as a derivative liability, at fair value, and ASC 480, as it relates to warrant liability, with changes in fair value reflected in income.
Fair Value Hierarchy
The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:
Level 1. Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2. Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets), or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated with observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs also include non-binding market consensus prices that can be corroborated with observable market data, as well as quoted prices that were adjusted for security-specific restrictions.
Level 3. Unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology are significant to the measurement of the fair value of assets or liabilities. These Level 3 inputs also include non-binding market consensus prices or non-binding broker quotes that the Company was unable to corroborate with observable market data.
Liability measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy as of May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017 is as follows:
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurements. These instruments are not quoted on an active market, so the Company uses a Binomial Lattice Model to estimate the value of the derivative liability. A Binomial Lattice Model was used because management believes it reflects all the assumptions that market participants would likely consider in negotiating the transfer of the warrant. The Company’s derivative liability is classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because certain unobservable inputs were used in the valuation model.
The following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) during the year ended May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017:
U.S. GAAP requires companies to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for the award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award at the date of grant. The expense is to be recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award (requisite service period) or when designated milestones have been achieved.
The Company accounts for stock-based awards established by the fair market value of the instrument using the Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizing certain weighted average assumptions including stock price volatility, expected term and risk-free interest rates, as of the grant date. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based upon observed interest rates appropriate for the expected term of the stock-based award. The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock on monthly intervals. The computation of the expected option term is based on the “simplified method,” as the Company issuances are considered “plain vanilla” options. For stock-based awards with defined vesting, the Company recognizes compensation expense over the requisite service period or when designated milestones have been achieved. The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods, if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Based on limited historical experience of forfeitures, the Company estimated future unvested forfeitures at 0% for all periods presented.
On March 18, 2016, at a special meeting of stockholders, a proposal was approved to increase the total number of authorized shares of common stock of the Company from 200,000,000 to 250,000,000. Subsequently, on August 24, 2016, at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders, a proposal was approved to increase the total number of authorized shares of common stock from 250,000,000 to 350,000,000. On August 24, 2017, at the 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, a proposal was approved to increase the total number of authorized shares of common stock from 350,000,000 to 375,000,000. On June 7, 2018, at a special meeting of stockholders, a proposal was approved to increase the total number of authorized shares of common stock of the Company from 375,000,000 to 450,000,000.
On November 1, 2017, the Company held a special meeting of stockholders, at which the stockholders approved a proposal to effect a reverse stock split at a ratio of any whole number between one-for-two and one-for-fifteen, as determined by the board of directors, and a simultaneous reduction in the total number of authorized shares of common stock to 200,000,000 at any time before August 24, 2018, if and as determined by the board of directors.
The Company’s Board of Directors is authorized to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock without stockholder approval. As of May 31, 2018, the Company has authorized the issuance of 400,000 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock, of which 92,100 shares were outstanding. The remaining preferred shares authorized have no specified rights.
Treasury stock purchases are accounted for under the par value method, whereby the cost of the acquired stock is recorded at par value. During the year ended May 31, 2018, the Company purchased 159,011 shares of $0.001 par value treasury stock for shares tendered in satisfaction of income tax withholding, in connection with incentive compensation paid to certain officers in the form of common stock.
During the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, the Company incurred approximately $ 1.5 million, $92,000 and $-0-, respectively, of debt discount related to the issuance of short-term convertible promissory notes issued with detachable warrants, as described in Note 4. The discount was amortized over the life of the convertible promissory notes and the Company recognized approximately $1.6 million, $-0- and $1.9 million, of related amortization expense for the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, respectively.
Debt Issuance Costs
During the year ended May 31, 2018, the Company incurred direct costs associated with the issuance of short-term convertible promissory notes, as described in Note 4, and recorded approximately $0.4 million of debt issuance costs. The Company recognized approximately $0.4 million, -0- and $0.6 million of related amortization expense for the year ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, respectively.
During the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, the Company incurred approximately $3.5 million, $1.8 million and $3.9 million respectively, in direct incremental costs associated with the sale of equity securities. The offering costs were recorded as a component of equity upon receipt of the proceeds, as fully described in Notes 10 and 11.
Stock for Services
The Company periodically issues warrants to consultants for various services. The Black-Scholes option pricing model, as described more fully above, is utilized to measure the fair value of the equity instruments on the date of issuance. The Company recognizes the compensation expense associated with the equity instruments over the requisite service or vesting period.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share would include the weighted average common shares outstanding and potentially dilutive common share equivalents. Because of the net losses for all periods presented, the basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding are the same since including the additional shares would have an anti-dilutive effect on the loss per share. For this reason, common stock options and warrants to purchase 132,385,269; 77,859,626 and 63,307,150 shares of common stock were not included in the computation of basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding for the years ended May 31, 2018, May 31, 2017 and May 31, 2016, respectively. As of May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock in the aggregate of 92,100 shares can potentially convert into 921,000 shares of common stock.
Deferred taxes are provided on the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Future tax benefits for net operating loss carry forwards are recognized to the extent that realization of these benefits is considered more likely than not. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC 740-10 Uncertainty in Income Taxes (“ASC 740-10”). A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits has not been provided since there are no unrecognized benefits for all periods presented. The Company has not recognized interest expense or penalties as a result of the implementation of ASC 740-10. If there were an unrecognized tax benefit, the Company would recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefit in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”) was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Act reduces the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective as of January 1, 2018. In accordance with Section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code, we utilized a blended rate of 28.62% for our fiscal 2018 tax year, by applying a prorated percentage of the number of days prior to and subsequent to the January 1, 2018 effective date. For the fiscal year ended May 31, 2018 and May 31, 2017, we recorded provisional charges for the re-measurement of the deferred tax assets and reduced our deferred taxes before the valuation allowance by $17,497,051 to our income tax expense. The net tax expense for the year ended May 31, 2018, is zero, due to the reduction in the deferred tax valuation allowance. The Company has a full valuation allowance as of May 31, 2018, as management does not consider it more than likely than not that the benefits from the deferred taxes will be realized.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef