Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
May 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, CytoDyn Operations Inc. All intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation.
Certain prior year amounts shown in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not have any effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, stockholders’ (deficit) equity, or net cash provided by financing activities as previously reported.
The consolidated accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. As shown in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company had losses for all periods presented. The Company incurred a net loss of $154.7 million, $124.4 million, and $56.2 million for the years ended May 31, 2021, May 31, 2020, and May 31, 2019, respectively, and has an accumulated deficit of $511.3 million as of May 31, 2021. These factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability of assets and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain additional operating capital, complete development of its product candidate, leronlimab, obtain approval to commercialize leronlimab from regulatory agencies, continue to outsource manufacturing of leronlimab, and ultimately achieve initial revenues and attain profitability. The Company continues to engage in significant research and development activities related to leronlimab for multiple indications and expects to incur significant research and development expenses in the future primarily related to its clinical trials. These research and development activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. The Company intends to finance its future development activities and its working capital needs largely from the sale of
equity and debt securities, combined with additional funding from other traditional sources. There can be no assurance, however, that the Company will be successful in these endeavors.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are assessed each period and updated to reflect current information, such as the economic considerations related to the impact that the recent coronavirus disease could have on our significant accounting estimates and assumptions. The Company’s estimates are based on historical experience and on various market and other relevant, appropriate assumptions. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Cash is maintained at federally insured financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances. Balances in excess of federally insured limits at May 31, 2021 and May 31, 2020 approximated $33.7 million and $14.0 million, respectively.
Identified Intangible Assets
The Company follows the provisions of ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other, which establishes accounting standards for the impairment of long-lived assets such as intangible assets subject to amortization. The Company reviews long-lived assets to be held and used for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the undiscounted expected future cash flows over the remaining useful life of a long-lived asset group is less than its carrying value, the asset is considered impaired. Impairment losses are measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset. The Company recognized an impairment charge of approximately $million for the year ended May 31, 2021, and none for the years ended May 31, 2020, and May 31, 2019. The value of the Company’s patents would be significantly impaired by any adverse developments as they relate to the clinical trials pursuant to the patents acquired as discussed in Note 8.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Clinical trial costs incurred through third-parties are expensed as the contracted work is performed. Contingent milestone payments that are due to third parties under research and development collaboration arrangements or other contractual agreements are expensed when the milestone conditions are probable and the amount of payment is reasonably estimable. See Notes 9 and 10.
The Company values inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the average cost method. Inventories consist of raw materials, bulk drug substance, and drug product in unlabeled vials to be used for commercialization of the Company’s biologic, leronlimab, which is in the regulatory approval process. The consumption of raw materials during production is classified as work-in-progress until saleable. Once it is determined to be in saleable condition, following regulatory approval, inventory is classified as finished goods. Inventory is evaluated for recoverability by considering the likelihood that revenue will be obtained from the future sale of the related inventory, in light of the status of the product within the regulatory approval process.
The Company evaluates its inventory levels on a quarterly basis and writes down inventory that has become obsolete, or has a cost in excess of its expected net realizable value, and inventory quantities in excess of expected requirements. In assessing the lower of cost or net realizable value for pre-launch inventory, the Company relies on independent analyses provided by third-parties knowledgeable of the range of likely commercial prices comparable to current comparable commercial product.
The Company capitalizes inventories procured or produced in preparation for product launches sufficient to support estimated initial market demand. Typically, capitalization of such inventory begins when the results of clinical trials have reached a status sufficient to support regulatory approval, uncertainties regarding ultimate regulatory approval have been significantly reduced and the Company has determined it is probable that these capitalized costs will provide future economic benefit in excess of capitalized costs. The material factors considered by the Company in evaluating these uncertainties include the receipt and analysis of positive Phase 3 clinical trial results for the underlying product candidate, results from meetings with the relevant regulatory authorities prior to the filing of regulatory applications, and status of the Company’s regulatory applications. The Company closely monitors the status of the product within the regulatory review and approval process, including all relevant communications with regulatory authorities. If the Company is aware of any specific material risks or contingencies other than the normal regulatory review and approval process or if there are any specific issues identified relating to safety, efficacy, manufacturing, marketing or labeling, the related inventory may no longer qualify for capitalization.
Anticipated future sales, shelf lives, and expected approval date are considered when evaluating realizability of capitalized inventory. The shelf-life of a product is determined as part of the regulatory approval process; however, in assessing whether to capitalize pre-launch inventory, the Company considers the product stability data of all of the pre-approval inventory procured or produced to date to determine whether there is adequate shelf life. As inventories approach their shelf-life expiration, the Company may perform additional stability testing to determine if the inventory is still viable, which can result in an extension of its shelf-life. Further, in addition to performing additional stability testing, certain raw materials inventory may be sold in its then current condition prior to reaching expiration.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash, accounts receivable, right-of-use assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, short-term and long-term lease liabilities, and short-term and long-term debt. As of May 31, 2021, the carrying value of the Company’s cash, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of the instruments. Short-term and long-term debt are reported at amortized cost in the Consolidated Balance Sheets which approximate fair value. The remaining financial instruments are reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at amounts that approximate current fair values.
During the fiscal year ended May 31, 2021 the Company carried derivative financial instruments at fair value as required by U.S. GAAP. Derivative financial instruments consist of financial instruments that contain a notional amount and one or more underlying variables (e.g., interest rate, security price, variable conversion rate or other variables), require no initial net investment and permit net settlement. Derivative financial instruments may be free-standing or embedded in other financial instruments. The Company follows the provisions of ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, as their instruments are recorded as a derivative liability, at fair value, and ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, as it relates to warrant liability, with changes in fair value reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
The fair value hierarchy specifies three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value as follows:
The Company did not have any assets or liabilities measured at fair value using Level 1 or 2 of the fair value hierarchy as of May 31, 2021 and May 31, 2020. As of May 31, 2020, there were noor measured at fair value
using Level 3 inputs; previous outstanding derivative warrants and related convertible debt valued at fair value using level 3 inputs were converted prior to May 31, 2020 according to the terms of the agreements.
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurements. These instruments are not quoted on an active market. During the 2020 fiscal year, the Company used a Binomial Lattice Model to estimate the value of the warrant derivative liability and a Monte Carlo Simulation to value the derivative liability of the redemption provision within a convertible promissory note. These valuation models were used because management believes they reflect all the assumptions that market participants would likely consider in negotiating the transfer of the instruments. The Company’s derivative liabilities were classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because certain unobservable inputs were used in the valuation models.
The following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) from inception to the year ended May 31, 2020 (in thousands):
Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, current portion of operating leases payable and operating leases liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred. The Company’s lease terms do not include options to extend or terminate the lease as it is not reasonably certain that it would exercise these options. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are generally accounted for separately.
U.S. GAAP requires companies to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for the award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award at the date of grant. The related expense is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award (requisite service period), when designated milestones have been achieved or when pre-defined performance conditions are met.
The Company accounts for stock-based awards established by the fair market value of the instrument using the Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizing certain weighted average assumptions including stock price volatility, expected term and risk-free interest rates, as of the grant date. For stock-based awards with defined vesting, the Company recognizes compensation expense over the requisite service period, when designated milestones have been achieved or when pre-defined performance conditions are met. The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and revised, if
necessary, in subsequent periods, if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Based on limited historical experience of forfeitures, the Company estimated future unvested forfeitures at 0% for all periods presented. Periodically, the Company will issue restricted common stock to executives or third parties as compensation for services rendered. Such stock awards are valued at fair market value on the effective date of the Company’s obligation.
The Company periodically issues stock options or warrants to consultants and advisors for various services. The Black-Scholes option pricing model, as described more fully above, is used to measure the fair value of the equity instruments on the date of issuance. The Company recognizes the compensation expense associated with the equity instruments over the requisite service or vesting period.
The Company has historically issued promissory notes at a discount and has incurred direct debt issuance costs. Debt discount and issuance costs are netted against the debt and amortized over the life of the convertible promissory note in accordance with ASC 470-35, Debt Subsequent Measurement.
The Company periodically incurs direct incremental costs associated with the sale of equity securities as fully described in Note 12. The costs are recorded as a component of equity upon receipt of the proceeds.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss adjusted for preferred stock dividends by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share would include the weighted average common shares outstanding and potentially dilutive common stock equivalents. Because of the net losses for all periods presented, the basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding are the same since including the additional shares would have an anti-dilutive effect on the loss per share.
The table below shows the numbers of shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise, vesting, or conversion of outstanding options, warrants, unvested restricted stock including those subject to performance conditions, convertible preferred stock (including undeclared dividends), and convertible notes that were not included in the computation of basic and diluted weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the years ended May 31, 2021, May 31, 2020 and May 31, 2019 (in thousands):
Deferred taxes are provided on the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax basis. Future tax benefits for net operating loss carryforwards are recognized to the extent that realization of these benefits is considered more likely than not. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company follows the provisions of ASC 740-10, Uncertainty in Income Taxes. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits has not been provided since there are no unrecognized benefits for all periods presented. The Company has not recognized interest expense or penalties from the implementation of ASC
740-10. If there were an unrecognized tax benefit, the Company would recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefit in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses.
In accordance with Section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code, the Company utilized a federal statutory rate of 21% for our fiscal 2021 and 2020 tax years. The net tax expense for the years ended May 31, 2021 and May 31, 2020 was zero. The Company recorded a tax benefit of $2.8 million for the year ended May 31, 2019. The Company has a full valuation allowance as of May 31, 2021 and May 31, 2020, as management does not consider it more than likely than not that the benefits from the net deferred taxes will be realized.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements, other than below, issued by the FASB (including its EITF), the AICPA and the SEC did not or are not believed by management to have a material effect on the Company’s present or future Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740). The objective of the standard is to improve areas of U.S. GAAP by removing certain exceptions permitted by ASC 740 and clarifying existing guidance to facilitate consistent application. The standard is effective for the Company beginning on June 1, 2021. The Company does not expect the new standard to have a material impact on its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and financial statement disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. The guidance removes certain accounting models which separate the embedded conversion features from the host contract for convertible instruments. Either a modified retrospective method of transition or a fully retrospective method of transition is permissible for the adoption of this standard. Update No. 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted no earlier than the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact, if any, of adoption on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef