Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Aug. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited interim Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, CytoDyn Operations Inc., and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, and should be read in conjunction with the financial statements, summary of significant accounting policies and footnotes included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K, as amended by Amendment No. 1 filed with the SEC on September 28, 2021, for the year ended May 31, 2021 (the “2021 Form 10-K”). Accordingly, certain disclosures required by U.S. GAAP and normally included in Annual Reports on Form 10-K have been condensed or omitted from this report; however, except as disclosed herein, there has been no material change in the information disclosed in the notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the 2021 Form 10-K. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
It is the opinion of management that all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of interim financial information, have been included. The Company has no items of other comprehensive income or loss; therefore, its net income or loss is identical to its comprehensive income or loss. Operating results for the periods presented are not necessarily indicative of expected results for the full year.
Certain prior year and prior quarter amounts shown in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not have any effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, stockholders’ (deficit) equity, or net cash flows as previously reported.
The consolidated accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. As shown in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company had losses for all periods presented. The Company
incurred a net loss of approximately $30.9 million for the three months ended August 31, 2021 and has an accumulated deficit of approximately $542.7 million as of August 31, 2021. These factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability of assets and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain additional operating capital, complete development of its product candidate, leronlimab, obtain approval to commercialize leronlimab from regulatory agencies, continue to outsource manufacturing of leronlimab, and ultimately achieve initial revenues and attain profitability. The Company continues to engage in significant research and development activities related to leronlimab for multiple indications and expects to incur significant research and development expenses in the future primarily related to its clinical trials. These research and development activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. The Company intends to finance its future development activities and its working capital needs largely from the sale of equity and debt securities, combined with additional funding from other traditional sources. There can be no assurance, however, that the Company will be successful in these endeavors.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of Consolidated Financial Statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are assessed each period and updated to reflect current information, such as the economic considerations related to the impact that the recent coronavirus disease could have on our significant accounting estimates and assumptions. The Company’s estimates are based on historical experience and on various market and other relevant, appropriate assumptions. Significant estimates include, but are not limited to, those relating to stock-based compensation, revenue recognition, research and development expenses, determination of right of use assets under lease transactions and related lease obligations, commitments and contingencies, and the assumptions used to value warrants, warrant modifications and useful lives for property and equipment and related depreciation calculations. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Cash is maintained at federally insured financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances. Balances in excess of federally insured limits as of August 31, 2021 and May 31, 2021 approximated $6.3 million and $33.7 million, respectively.
Identified Intangible Assets
The Company follows the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other, which establishes accounting standards for the impairment of long-lived assets such as intangible assets subject to amortization. The Company reviews long-lived assets to be held and used for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the undiscounted expected future cash flows over the remaining useful life of a long-lived asset group is less than its carrying value, the asset is considered impaired. Impairment losses are measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset. There were no impairment charges during the three months ended August 31, 2021 and 2020. The value of the Company’s patents would be significantly impaired by any adverse developments as they relate to the clinical trials pursuant to the patents acquired as discussed in Note 7.
The Company accounts for and recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company’s revenue is generated solely through the sale of leronlimab. The Company accounts for a contract when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
Contracts with customers are generally in the form of a written purchase order, that outlines the promised goods and the agreed upon price. Such orders are often accompanied by a master supply or distribution agreement that establishes the terms and conditions, rights of the parties, delivery terms, and pricing. The Company assesses collectability based on a number of factors, including creditworthiness of the customer.
For the Company’s sole contract to date, the customer submits purchase orders for the purchase of a specified quantity of leronlimab vials; therefore, the delivery of the ordered quantity per the purchase order is accounted for as one performance obligation. The Company does not offer discounts or rebates.
The transaction price is determined based on the agreed upon rates per vial in the purchase order or master supply agreement applied to the quantity of leronlimab vials that was requested by the customer in the purchase order. As the Company’s contracts include only one performance obligation, the delivery of the product to the customer, all of the transaction price is allocated to the one performance obligation. Therefore, upon delivery of the product quantity equal to the quantity requested in the purchase order, there are no remaining performance obligations. The Company’s shipping and handling activities are considered a fulfillment cost. The Company has elected to exclude all sales and value added taxes from the measurement of the transaction price. The Company has not adjusted the transaction price for significant financing since the time period between the transfer of goods and payment is less than one year.
The Company recognizes revenue at a point in time when control of the products is transferred to the customer. Management applies judgment in evaluating when a customer obtains control of the promised good which is generally when the product is delivered to the customer. The Company’s customer contract includes a standard assurance warranty to guarantee that its products comply with agreed specifications. The Company grants a conditional right of return of product in the customer’s inventory upon an adverse regulatory ruling. The Company continually evaluates the probability of such occurrence and if necessary, will defer revenue recognized based on its estimate of the right of return, which takes into account the probability that an adverse ruling will occur and its estimate of product in the customer’s inventory.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company’s s revenues are derived solely from the sale of leronlimab vials. The Company believes the disaggregation of revenues, as seen on the consolidated statement of operations, is an appropriate level of detail for its primary activity.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
The Company’s performance obligations for its contracts with customers are satisfied at a point in time through the delivery of leronlimab vials to its customer. Accordingly, the Company did not have any contractor as of August 31, 2021. The Company did not have during the three months ended August 31, 2020 and did not have any contract or as of that date. For all periods presented, the Company did not recognize revenue from amounts that were included in the contract liability balance at the beginning of each period. In addition, for all periods presented, there was no revenue recognized in a reporting period from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods.
The Company does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which the variable consideration is allocated entirely to a wholly unsatisfied performance obligation. Under the Company’s contract, each unit of product delivered to the customer represents a separate performance obligation; therefore, future deliveries of the product are wholly unsatisfied and disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations is not required.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Clinical trial costs incurred through third parties are expensed as the contracted work is performed. Contingent milestone payments that are due to third parties under research and development collaboration arrangements or other contractual agreements are expensed when the milestone conditions are probable and the amount of payment is reasonably estimable. See Notes 8 and 9.
The Company values inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the average cost method. Inventories consist of raw materials, bulk drug substance, and drug product in unlabeled vials to be used for commercialization of the Company’s biologic, leronlimab, which is in the regulatory approval process. The consumption of raw materials during production is classified as work-in-progress until saleable. Once it is determined to be in saleable condition, following regulatory approval, inventory is classified as finished goods. Inventory is evaluated for recoverability by considering the likelihood that revenue will be obtained from the future sale of the related inventory, in light of the status of the product within the regulatory approval process.
The Company evaluates its inventory levels on a quarterly basis and writes down inventory that has become obsolete or has a cost in excess of its expected net realizable value, and inventory quantities in excess of expected requirements. In assessing the lower of cost or net realizable value for pre-launch inventory, the Company relies on independent analyses provided by third parties knowledgeable about the range of likely commercial prices comparable to current comparable commercial product.
The Company capitalizes inventories procured or produced in preparation for product launches sufficient to support estimated initial market demand. Typically, capitalization of such inventory begins when the results of clinical trials have reached a status sufficient to support regulatory approval, uncertainties regarding ultimate regulatory approval have been significantly reduced, and the Company has determined it is probable that these capitalized costs will provide future economic benefit in excess of capitalized costs. The material factors considered by the Company in evaluating these uncertainties include the receipt and analysis of positive Phase 3 clinical trial results for the underlying product candidate, results from meetings with the relevant regulatory authorities prior to the filing of regulatory applications, and status of the Company’s regulatory applications. The Company closely monitors the status of the product within the regulatory review and approval process, including all relevant communications with regulatory authorities. If the Company is aware of any specific material risks or contingencies other than the normal regulatory review and approval process or if there are any specific issues identified relating to safety, efficacy, manufacturing, marketing or labeling, the related inventory may no longer qualify for capitalization.
Anticipated future sales, shelf lives, and expected approval date are considered when evaluating realizability of capitalized inventory. The shelf-life of a product is determined as part of the regulatory approval process; however, in assessing whether to capitalize pre-launch inventory, the Company considers the product stability data of all of the pre-approval inventory procured or produced to date to determine whether there is adequate shelf life. As inventories approach their shelf-life expiration, the Company may perform additional stability testing to determine if the inventory is still viable, which can result in an extension of its shelf-life. Further, in addition to performing additional stability testing, certain raw materials inventory may be sold in its then current condition prior to reaching expiration.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, short-term and long-term lease liabilities, and short-term and long-term debt. As of August 31, 2021, the carrying value of the Company’s cash, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of the instruments. Short-term and long-term debt are reported at amortized cost in the Consolidated Balance Sheets which approximate fair value. The remaining financial instruments are reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at amounts that approximate current fair values.
From time to time, the Company may have derivative financial instruments which are recorded at fair value, as required by U.S. GAAP. Derivative financial instruments consist of financial instruments that contain a notional amount and one or more underlying variables (e.g., interest rate, security price, variable conversion rate or other variables), require no initial net investment and permit net settlement. Derivative financial instruments may be free-standing or embedded in other financial instruments. The Company follows the provisions of ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, as their instruments are recorded as a derivative liability, at fair value, and ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, as it relates to warrant liability, with changes in fair value reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
The fair value hierarchy specifies three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value as follows:
The Company did not have any assets or liabilities measured at fair value using the fair value hierarchy as of August 31, 2021 and May 31, 2021.
The Company accounts for stock-based awards established by the fair market value of the instrument using the Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizing certain weighted average assumptions including stock price volatility, expected term and risk-free interest rates, as of the grant date. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, for stock-based awards with defined vesting, the Company recognizes compensation expense over the requisite service periods, when designated milestones have been achieved or when pre-defined performance conditions are met. The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and will revise its estimates, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from such estimates. Based on limited historical experience of forfeitures, the Company estimated future unvested forfeitures at 0% for all periods presented. Periodically, the Company will issue restricted common stock to executives or third parties as compensation for services rendered. Such stock awards are valued at fair market value on the effective date of the Company’s obligation.
The Company periodically issues stock options or warrants to consultants and advisors for various services. The Black-Scholes option pricing model, as described more fully above, is used to measure the fair value of the equity instruments on the date of issuance. The Company recognizes the compensation expense associated with the equity instruments over the requisite service or vesting period.
The Company has historically issued promissory notes at a discount and has incurred direct debt issuance costs. Debt discount and issuance costs are netted against the debt and amortized over the life of the convertible promissory note in accordance with ASC 470-35, Debt Subsequent Measurement.
The Company periodically incurs direct incremental costs associated with the sale of equity securities as fully described in Note 10. The costs are recorded as a component of equity upon receipt of the proceeds.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss adjusted for preferred stock dividends by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share would include the weighted average common shares outstanding and potentially dilutive common stock equivalents. Because of the net losses for all periods presented, the basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding are the same since including the additional shares would have an anti-dilutive effect on the loss per share.
The table below shows the number of shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise, vesting or conversion of outstanding options, warrants, unvested restricted stock including those subject to performance conditions, convertible preferred stock (including undeclared dividends), and convertible notes that were not included in the computation of basic and diluted weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the three months ended August 31, 2021 and August 31, 2020:
The Company computes its quarterly taxes under the effective tax rate method based on applying an anticipated annual effective rate to its year-to-date income, except for discrete items. Income taxes for discrete items are computed and recorded in the period that the specific transaction occurs.
The Company’s net tax expense for the three months ended August 31, 2021 and August 31, 2020, was zero. The Company’s effective tax rate of 0% differed from the statutory rate of 21% because the Company has a full valuation allowance as of August 31, 2021 and May 31, 2021, as management does not consider it more than likely than not that the benefits from the net deferred taxes will be realized.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740). The objective of the standard was to improve areas of U.S. GAAP by removing certain exceptions permitted by ASC 740 and clarifying existing guidance to facilitate consistent application. The Company adopted ASU 2019-12 on June 1, 2021. The adoption of ASU 2019-12 did not impact the Company’s statement of financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or financial statement disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. The guidance removes certain accounting models that separate the embedded conversion features from the host contract for convertible instruments. Either a modified retrospective method of transition or a fully retrospective method of transition is permissible for the adoption of this standard. Update No. 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted no earlier than the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted on June 1, 2021 ASU No. 2020-06 effective for the fiscal year beginning June 1, 2021. The adoption of ASU No. 2020-06 did not affect the Company’s statement of financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or financials statement disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef