Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Feb. 28, 2015
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and reflect all adjustments, consisting solely of normal recurring adjustments, needed to fairly present the financial results for these periods. The consolidated financial statements and notes are presented as permitted by Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been omitted. The accompanying consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements for the fiscal years ended May 31, 2014 and 2013 and notes thereto in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2014, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 10, 2014. Operating results for the three and nine months ended February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the entire year. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of (a) the results of operations for the three and nine month periods ended February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, (b) the financial position at February 28, 2015, and (c) cash flows for the nine-month periods ended February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, have been made.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CytoDyn Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, AGTI and CVM. All intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation.
Certain prior year amounts shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the 2015 presentation. These reclassifications did not have any effect on total current assets, total assets, total current liabilities, total liabilities, total shareholders’ (deficit)/equity or net loss.
The consolidated accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company had losses for all periods presented. The Company incurred a net loss of $11,085,087 for the nine months ended February 28, 2015 and has an accumulated deficit of $57,519,320 as of February 28, 2015. These factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability of assets and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain additional operating capital, complete development of its product candidates, obtain U.S. Food & Drug Administration (“FDA”) approval, outsource manufacturing of the product candidates, and ultimately achieve initial revenues and attain profitability. The Company is currently engaging in significant research and development activities related to these product candidates, and expects to incur significant research and development expenses in the future. These research and development activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. The Company intends to finance our future development activities and our working capital needs largely from the sale of debt and equity securities, combined with additional funding from other traditional sources. There can be no assurance, however, that the Company will be successful in these endeavors.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements, in accordance with U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash is maintained at financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. We have never experienced any losses related to these balances. Currently, the FDIC provides insurance coverage up to $250,000 per depositor at each financial institution, and our cash balances may exceed federally insured limits. Balances in excess of federally insured limits at February 28, 2015 and May 31, 2014 approximated $1,468,000 and $4,589,000, respectively.
Identified Intangible Assets
The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, (“ASC Topic 350”) which establishes accounting standards for the impairment of long-lived assets, such as intangible assets subject to amortization. The Company reviews long-lived assets to be held and used for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the undiscounted expected future cash flows over the remaining useful life of a long-lived asset group is less than its carrying value, the asset is considered impaired. Impairment losses are measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset. There were no impairment charges for the three and nine-months ended February 28, 2015 and 2014. The value of the Company’s patents would be significantly impaired by any adverse developments as they relate to the clinical trials pursuant to the patents acquired as discussed in Notes 9 and 10. These patents are being amortized over ten years, which was the estimated weighted average life of the patent portfolio at the time of acquisition. The Company continues to explore opportunities to prolong the patent protection period.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
U.S. GAAP requires companies to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for the award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award at the date of grant. The expense is to be recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award (requisite service period).
The Company accounts for common stock options and common stock warrants based on the fair market value of the instrument using the Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizing certain weighted average assumptions such as expected stock price volatility, term of the options and warrants, risk-free interest rates, and expected dividend yield at the grant date. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based upon observed interest rates appropriate for the expected term of the stock options. The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock at consistent intervals. The Company has not paid any dividends on its common stock since its inception and does not anticipate paying dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future. The computation of the expected option term is based on the “simplified method,” as the Company’s stock options are “plain vanilla” options and the Company has a limited history of exercise data. For common stock options and warrants with periodic vesting, the Company recognizes the related compensation costs associated with these options and warrants on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
U.S. GAAP requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Based on limited historical experience of forfeitures, the Company estimated future unvested option forfeitures at 0% for all periods presented.
As of February 28, 2015, the Company’s Board of Directors is authorized to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock without shareholder approval. As of February 28, 2015, the Company has authorized the issuance of 400,000 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock. The remaining preferred shares authorized have no specified rights other than the shares are non-voting.
Deferred Offering Costs
In connection with a stock rescission liability as discussed in Note 3, the Company has recorded approximately $43,300 and $68,300 in deferred offering costs as of February 28, 2015, and May 31, 2014, respectively. These deferred offering costs have been recorded as a current asset for the respective periods. The asset will be offset against equity and reduce equity at the end of the applicable period during which the investors described in Note 3 do not assert their rescission rights and retain their shares. Conversely, if the investors assert their rescission rights and forfeit their shares, the deferred offering costs will be expensed at that time.
Stock for Services
The Company periodically issues common stock, warrants and common stock options to consultants for various services. Costs of these transactions are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The value of the common stock is measured at the earlier of (i) the date at which a firm commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached or (ii) the date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete.
Loss Per Common Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average common shares and potentially dilutive common share equivalents. The effects of potential common stock equivalents are not included in computations when their effect is anti-dilutive. Because of the net losses for all periods presented, the basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding are the same since including the additional shares would have an anti-dilutive effect on the loss per share calculation. Common stock options and warrants to purchase 23,055,950 and 31,970,327 shares of common stock were not included in the computation of basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding for the nine-months ended February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, respectively, as inclusion would be anti-dilutive for these periods. Additionally, as of February 28, 2015, 95,100 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock can potentially convert into 951,000 shares of common stock, and $6,596,250 of face amount convertible debt can potentially convert into 7,628,333 shares of common stock.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
At February 28, 2015 and May 31, 2014 the carrying value of the Company’s cash, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of the instruments. The Company carries derivative financial instruments at fair value as required by U.S. GAAP.
Derivative financial instruments consist of financial instruments that contain a notional amount and one or more underlying variables (e.g., interest rate, security price, variable conversion rate or other variables), require no initial net investment and permit net settlement. Derivative financial instruments may be free-standing or embedded in other financial instruments. The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC 815 “Derivatives and Hedging” (“ASC 815”), as their instruments are recorded as a derivative liability, at fair value, with changes in fair value reflected in income.
Fair Value Hierarchy
The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:
Level 1. Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2. Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets), or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated with observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs also include non-binding market consensus prices that can be corroborated with observable market data, as well as quoted prices that were adjusted for security-specific restrictions.
Level 3. Unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology are significant to the measurement of the fair value of assets or liabilities. These Level 3 inputs also include non-binding market consensus prices or non-binding broker quotes that we were unable to corroborate with observable market data.
Liability measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy as of February 28, 2015 and May 31, 2014 is as follows:
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurements. These instruments are not quoted on an active market, so the Company uses a Binomial Lattice Model to estimate the value of the derivative liability. A Binomial Lattice Model was used because management believes it reflects all the assumptions that market participants would likely consider in negotiating the transfer of the convertible notes including the potential for early conversion or adjustment of the conversion price due to a future dilutive issuance. The Company’s derivative liability is classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because certain unobservable inputs were used in the valuation model.
The following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for the liability measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) during the nine-months ended February 28, 2015:
Deferred taxes are provided on the asset and liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Future tax benefits for net operating loss carry forwards are recognized to the extent that realization of these benefits is considered more likely than not. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC 740-10 “Uncertainty in Income Taxes” (ASC 740-10). A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits has not been provided since there are no unrecognized benefits for all periods presented. The Company has not recognized interest expense or penalties as a result of the implementation of ASC 740-10. If there were an unrecognized tax benefit, the Company would recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefit in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses. The Company is subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service and state tax authorities for tax years May 31, 2012 through 2014.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef