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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
 Registration No. 333-272815
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_cytodyn-4c.jpg]
Up to 205,652,848 Shares of Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the resale of up to 74,903,789 shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “common stock”), and 130,749,059 shares of our common stock underlying certain warrants (collectively, the “Shares”), by the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus under “Selling Stockholders.” The selling stockholders may sell all or a portion of the Shares from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of sale. The Shares may be sold by any means described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 65.
We are not selling any shares of our Common Stock under this prospectus and will not receive any proceeds from the sale of these Shares by the selling stockholders. We will, however, receive proceeds from any warrants that are exercised through the payment of the exercise price in cash. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the Shares covered by this prospectus. All selling and other expenses incurred by the selling stockholders will be borne by the selling stockholders.
We are registering the offer and sale of these Shares pursuant to certain registration rights granted to the selling stockholders. The registration of these Shares does not necessarily mean that any of the Shares will be offered or sold by the selling stockholders. The timing and amount of any sale is within the sole discretion of the selling stockholders.
Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of OTC Markets Group, Inc. under the symbol “CYDY.” On September 26, 2023, the closing price of our common stock was $0.18 per share.
Investing in our securities involves risk. You should carefully consider the risks that we have described under the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 8 before buying our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is October 11, 2023

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F-1
In making your investment decision, you should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus.
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not making an offer to sell or seeking an offer to buy any shares of common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is complete and accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities offered hereby.
 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-272815) (the “Registration Statement”) that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus and the exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement carefully. Such documents contain important information you should consider when making your investment decision. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.
This prospectus may be supplemented from time to time to add, update or change information in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You may only rely on the information contained in this prospectus or that we have referred you to. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus and any future prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement nor any sale made hereunder shall, under any circumstances, create any implication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date of this prospectus or such prospectus supplement or that the information contained by reference to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is correct as of any time after its date.
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to the Registration Statement, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”
CytoDyn Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries are referred to herein as “CytoDyn,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our,” unless the context indicates otherwise.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains certain forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Words and expressions reflecting optimism, satisfaction or disappointment with current prospects, as well as words such as “believes,” “hopes,” “intends,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” “plans,” “anticipates” and variations thereof, or the use of future tense, identify forward-looking statements, but their absence does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance, and actual results could vary materially from those contained in or expressed by such statements. In evaluating all such statements, we urge you to specifically consider various risk factors identified in this prospectus, including the matters set forth under the heading Risk Factors, any of which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements.
Our forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on currently available financial, economic, scientific, and competitive data and information on current business plans. Forward-looking statements include, among others, statements about leronlimab, its ability to have positive health outcomes, the Company’s ability to resolve the clinical holds imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) and information regarding future operations, future capital expenditures, and future net cash flows.
You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties relating to, among other things: the regulatory determinations of leronlimab’s safety and effectiveness by the FDA and various drug regulatory agencies in other countries; the Company’s ability to raise additional capital to fund its operations; the Company’s ability to meet its debt and other payment obligations; the Company’s ability to enter into or maintain partnership or licensing arrangements with third-parties; the Company’s ability to recruit or retain key employees; the timely and sufficient development, through internal resources or third-party consultants, of analyses of the data generated from the Company’s clinical trials required by the FDA or other regulatory agencies in connection with applications for approval of the Company’s drug product; the Company’s ability to achieve approval of a marketable product; the design, implementation, and conduct of the Company’s clinical trials; the results of the Company’s clinical trials, including the possibility of unfavorable clinical trial results; the market for, and marketability of, any product that is approved; the existence or development of vaccines, drugs, or other treatments that are viewed by medical professionals or patients as superior to the Company’s products; regulatory initiatives, compliance with governmental regulations and the regulatory approval process; legal proceedings, including but not limited to investigations or inquiries affecting the Company or its products; general economic and business conditions; changes in foreign, political, and social conditions; stockholder actions or proposals with regard to the Company, its management, or its Board of Directors (the “Board”); and various other matters, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties develop, or should underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially and adversely from those anticipated, believed, estimated, or otherwise indicated by our forward-looking statements.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference as exhibits. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. To fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 8, and the financial statements and other information in this prospectus, when making an investment decision. This is only a summary and may not contain all the information that is important to you. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, and any other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
About Us
We are a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development of innovative treatments for multiple therapeutic indications based on our product candidate, leronlimab (also referred to as PRO 140), a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (“CCR5”). Our core areas of clinical development are human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (“NASH”), and solid tumors in oncology. The current areas of clinical focus in HIV are the lifting of a partial clinical hold imposed by the FDA in March 2022, creation of a long-acting formulation of leronlimab, and an HIV functional cure in using adenovirus vectors (“AAV”). In NASH, we plan to focus on the general population of those affected by NASH, and the subpopulation of patients with NASH and HIV. Regarding oncology, our focus remains on combination therapy for solid tumors to explore the potential of leronlimab in the tumor microenvironment and the potential benefit for decreasing angiogenesis, potential macrophage repolarization, decreasing metastasis, and the potential to mitigate regulatory T-cells (“Tregs”) infiltration of the tumor microenvironment. At this time, there are no approved therapies for NASH and current highly active antiretroviral therapy (“HAART”) regimens often contribute to hepatoxicity. Patients with HIV and NASH represent an unmet medical need, and we believe leronlimab may play a vital role in this population to reduce HIV viral load, steatosis, and fibro-inflammation. Additionally, even after the FDA approves therapies for NASH, because of the complexity of NASH affecting multiple systems in the body, we believe that an opportunity exists for a combination therapy.
Corporate Information
CytoDyn Inc. is a Delaware corporation with its principal executive offices at 1111 Main Street, Suite 660, Vancouver, Washington 98660, telephone (360) 980-8524. Our website can be found at www.cytodyn.com. We do not intend to incorporate any contents from our website into this prospectus. Effective August 27, 2015, we completed a reincorporation from Colorado to Delaware. Effective November 16, 2018, we implemented a holding company reorganization, as a result of which we became the successor issuer and reporting company to the former CytoDyn Inc. (now our wholly owned subsidiary, CytoDyn Operations Inc.).
Description of Transactions in which Shares of Common Stock and Warrants Held by Selling Stockholders Were Issued
The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus may sell shares of our common stock as shown under “Selling Stockholders” below. The transactions in which the shares of our common stock available for resale under this prospectus were or may be acquired by the selling stockholders, including shares underlying warrants to purchase our common stock, are described below.
Warrants Issued to 4-Good Ventures LLC.   On February 14, 2022, we entered into a Surety Bond Backstop Agreement (the “Backstop Agreement”) with David F. Welch, Ph.D., both individually and in his capacity as trustee of a revocable trust, LRFA, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and certain other related parties (collectively, the “Indemnitors”). Pursuant to the Backstop Agreement, the Indemnitors agreed to assist the Company in obtaining a surety bond (the “Surety Bond”) for posting in connection with the Company’s ongoing litigation with Amarex Clinical Research, LLC, by, among other things, agreeing to indemnify the issuer of the Surety Bond with respect to the Company’s obligations under the Surety Bond. Under the Backstop Agreement as amended in July and December of 2022, the Company issued to
 
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4-Good Ventures LLC, an affiliate of the Indemnitors (“4-Good Ventures”), two warrants, each for the purchase of 15,000,000 shares of our common stock, as a backstop fee. Both warrants are fully exercisable, have a five-year term and, as amended in December 2022, have an exercise price of $0.10 per share. In February 2023, two additional fully exercisable warrants, each for the purchase of 7,500,000 shares of our common stock with a five-year term and an exercise price of $0.10 per share, were issued to 4-Good Ventures. The four warrants are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “Backstop Warrants.” In June 2023, 4-Good Ventures assigned the Backstop Warrants to a revocable trust controlled by Dr. Welch, as permitted by the Backstop Warrants. The remaining 41,000,000 shares of common stock underlying the Backstop Warrants, as well as 3,000,0000 shares of common stock received by the revocable trust upon exercise of a portion of one of the Backstop Warrants, are being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders” beginning on page 59 of this prospectus.
Sales of Common Stock and Warrants in Private Sales through a Placement Agent.   During the period from January through April 2023, we issued in a private placement to accredited investors through Paulson Investment Company, LLC, an aggregate of 71,577,702 shares of our common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 71,577,702 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $0.50 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $16.5 million. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The shares of common stock, as well as the shares of common stock underlying the warrants, issued in connection with the offering are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.
Sales of Common Stock and Warrants in Private Sales Conducted by Us.   In February 2023, Cyrus Arman, Ph.D., then the Company’s President, entered into a transaction with the Company in which he purchased 434,782 shares of our common stock, together with a warrant to purchase up to 434,782 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $0.50 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $0.1 million. The terms and conditions of the sale and issuance of the warrant were the same as those offered to other investors in the offering through a placement agent described above. The shares of common stock, as well as the shares of common stock underlying the warrant, are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.
Issuance of Warrants to Placement Agent in Connection with Private Placement Offerings.   In connection with the private placement through a placement agent described above, we issued to Paulson Investment Company, LLC, or its designees, warrants to purchase a total of 10,736,575 shares of our common stock. The warrants have a 10-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The warrants have an exercise price of $0.23 per share and include a cashless exercise provision. The shares of common stock underlying the warrants are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.
Warrants Issued to Richard G. Pestell, M.D., Ph.D.   In May 2022, we issued to Richard G. Pestell, M.D., Ph.D., warrants with a three-year term to purchase 7,000,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.37 per share in connection with the settlement of a lawsuit related to Dr. Pestell’s former employment as our CMO. The shares of common stock are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.
 
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THIS OFFERING
We are registering for resale by the Selling Stockholders named herein an aggregate of 205,652,848 shares of our common stock as described below.
Issuer:
CytoDyn Inc.
Securities being offered:
74,903,789 shares of common stock and 130,749,059 shares underlying outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock, as listed in the table under “Selling Stockholders” below.
Common stock outstanding prior to this offering:
930,960,097 shares of common stock as of September 11, 2023
Use of proceeds:
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the Shares by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders will bear all selling and other expenses incurred in connection with the sale or other disposition by them of the Shares covered hereby. However, if all the warrants covered by this prospectus are exercised for cash, we may receive proceeds of up to approximately $45.2 million, as further described in “Use of Proceeds.
Market for common stock:
Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Market under the symbol “CYDY.” On September 26, 2023, the closing price of our common stock was $0.18 per share.
Risk factors:
The purchase of our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.
Summary Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

Our cash reserves are extremely low, requiring that we raise substantial additional financing to satisfy our current payment obligations and to fund our operations.

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company with a history of significant operating losses; we expect to continue to incur operating losses, and we may never achieve profitability.

The amount of financing we require will depend on various factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our results of operations, financial condition, and stock price are likely to be adversely affected if we are unable to obtain additional funding on improved terms compared to previous financings.

Our future cash requirements may differ significantly from our current estimates.

Our auditors have issued a going concern opinion, and we will not be able to achieve our objectives and will have to cease operations if we cannot find adequate financing.

We have written off the value of our pre-launch inventories of leronlimab and related raw materials, the costs of which were previously capitalized, and may be unable to use all or a portion of those inventories in the development of our product candidate.
Risks Related to Our Ability to Maintain Effective Operational and Internal Controls Environment

The recruitment and retention of skilled directors, executives, employees and consultants may be difficult and expensive, may result in dilution to our stockholders, and any failure to attract and retain such individuals may adversely affect our drug development and commercialization activities.
 
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Our Chief Financial Officer has also been appointed as interim President while we search for a new President and/or Chief Executive Officer. The loss, temporary loss, or transition of members of our senior management team or any other key employees may adversely affect our business.

If we are unable to effectively maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results and our stock price could be adversely affected.

Our information technology systems could fail to perform adequately or experience data corruption, cyber-based attacks, or network security breaches.
Risks Related to Legal Proceedings

Our business, operating results, and financial condition could be negatively affected as a result of litigation and other demands made by stockholders.

Class-action litigation filed against us could harm our business, and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all related costs and damages.

We are subject to oversight by the SEC, FDA, and other regulatory agencies. Investigations and proceedings by those agencies may divert management’s focus and have a material adverse effect on our reputation and financial condition.

We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation and other claims.
Risks Related to Development and Commercialization of Our Drug Candidate

We have been notified by Samsung of alleged breaches of our payment obligations to Samsung, which ultimately could result in termination of our agreements for manufacturing of our drug product and related services we expect Samsung to provide under the agreements.

Certain agreements and related license agreements require us to make significant milestone, royalty, and other payments, which will require additional financing and, in the event we do commercialize leronlimab, will decrease the revenues we may ultimately receive on sales. To the extent that such milestone, royalty and other payments are not timely made, the counterparties to such agreements in certain cases have repurchase and termination rights thereunder with respect to leronlimab.

If we are unable to obtain all required regulatory approvals for leronlimab, we will not be able to commercialize our primary product candidate, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price.

We are substantially dependent on the success of leronlimab. If we, either alone or with collaborators, are unable to complete the clinical development of, obtain and maintain marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize leronlimab, including with respect to adequate coverage and reimbursement, or if we continue to experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be seriously harmed.

Our competitors may develop drugs that are more effective, safer, and less expensive than ours.

We may not be able to identify, negotiate, and maintain the strategic alliances necessary to develop and commercialize our products and technologies, and we will be dependent on our corporate partners if we do.

Known third-party patent rights could delay or otherwise adversely affect our planned development and sale of leronlimab. We have identified but not exhaustively analyzed other patents that could relate to our proposed products.
Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We have a very limited number of internal research and development personnel, making us dependent on consulting relationships and strategic alliances with industry partners.
 
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We may continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs and third-party manufacturers, to conduct clinical trials for our product candidate, leronlimab, and to produce our pre-clinical and clinical product candidate supplies. Such third parties are subject to significant regulation. A failure by such third parties to properly and successfully perform their obligations to us, or failure of manufacturers on which we rely to meet regulatory requirements, may result in our inability to obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our product candidate.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property Rights

Our success depends substantially upon our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection relating to our product candidate and future product candidates.

If we are sued for infringing on third-party intellectual property rights, it will be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome would have a significant adverse effect on our business. We may also undertake infringement or other legal proceedings against third parties, causing us to spend substantial resources on litigation and exposing our own intellectual property portfolio to challenge.

We may become involved in disputes with our present or future contract partners over intellectual property ownership or other matters, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our common stock is classified as “penny stock” and trading of our shares may be restricted by the SEC’s penny stock regulations.

The trading price of our common stock has been and could remain volatile, and the market price of our common stock may decrease.

Since our inception, we have been insolvent and have required debt and equity financing to maintain operations. We expect our debt service obligations and our need for additional funding to finance operations will cause additional substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation permits our Board to create new series of preferred stock without further approval by our stockholders, which could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.

Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws, and Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult, and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the current members of our Board and management.

We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in this section, that represent challenges we face in our efforts to successfully implement our strategy. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as other information set forth in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this prospectus. These risks, should they occur, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, or the trading price of our common stock. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may occur or become material in the future. Therefore, historical financial and business performance, events and trends are often not a reliable indicator of future operating results, financial and business performance, events or trends.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital
Our cash reserves are extremely low, requiring that we raise substantial additional financing to satisfy our current payment obligations and to fund our operations, which continues to be difficult in light of the low trading price of our common stock.
As of May 31, 2023, we had an unrestricted cash balance of approximately $2.5 million and a reserved cash balance of approximately $6.5 million. We must continue to raise substantial additional funds in the near term to meet our payment obligations and fund our operations. Additional funding may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, as of September 25, 2023, we had only approximately 20.0 million shares of common stock unreserved for other purposes and available for issuance in new financing transactions. We will need to use some of the additional authorized shares (or funds raised through the sale of such shares) to satisfy a portion of our outstanding accounts payable and accrued liabilities, which totaled approximately $69.4 million on May 31, 2023. If we are not able to raise additional funds on a timely basis, we may be forced to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our planned operating activities, including continuing to seek removal of the clinical hold placed on us by the FDA, analyzing clinical trial data for purposes of responding to FDA requirements, and preparing additional regulatory submissions, developing additional clinical trials for indications we plan to pursue, regulatory and compliance activities, and legal defense activities. Any delay or inability to pursue our planned activities likely will adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price. The continued low trading price of our common stock (with a closing price of $0.18 per share on September 26, 2023) presents a significant challenge to our ability to raise additional funds. If we deplete our cash reserves, we may have to discontinue our operations and liquidate our assets.
We are a clinical stage biotechnology company with a history of significant operating losses; we expect to continue to incur operating losses, and we may never achieve profitability.
We have not generated significant revenue from product sales, licensing, or other income opportunities to date. Since our inception, we have incurred operating losses in each year due to costs incurred for research and development activities and general and administrative expenses related to our operations. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future, with no or only minimal revenues as we continue to pursue development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, leronlimab. If leronlimab fails to gain regulatory approval, or if it or other drug or biologic candidates we may acquire or license in the future do not achieve approval or market acceptance, we will not be able to generate revenue or explore other opportunities to enhance stockholder value, such as through a sale. If we fail to generate revenue or if we are unable to fund our continuing operations, our stockholders could lose a portion or all of their investments.
The amount of financing we require will depend on various factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our results of operations, financial condition, and stock price are likely to be adversely affected if we are unable to obtain additional funding on improved terms compared to previous financings.
Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

the costs of preparing required regulatory submissions, as well as any clinical trial programs and pre-clinical studies we may pursue and other development activities conducted by us directly,
 
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the costs involved with our chemistry, manufacturing and controls (“CMC”) activities,

the satisfaction of payment obligations we have already incurred,

the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approvals and making related milestone payments due to third parties with whom we have licensing or similar agreements,

the costs of filing, prosecuting, maintaining, and enforcing patents and other intellectual property rights and defending against potential claims of infringement,

the costs associated with hiring and retaining needed scientific and administrative employees, advisors, and consultants,

the cost of legal and other professional advisors needed to support our development efforts, responsibilities as a public reporting company, regulatory compliance and investigations, and legal proceedings,

the costs of compliance with laws, regulations, or judicial decisions applicable to us, and

the costs of general and administrative infrastructure required to manage our business and protect corporate assets and stockholder interests.
If any of these factors cause our funding needs to be greater than expected, our ability to continue operations, financial condition, and stock price may be adversely affected.
Our future cash requirements may differ significantly from our current estimates.
Our cash requirements may differ significantly from our estimates from time to time, depending on a number of factors, including:

our ability to attract strategic partners to pay for or share costs related to our product development efforts,

whether our outstanding convertible notes are converted into equity,

whether we receive additional cash upon the exercise of our outstanding warrants and stock options for common stock, and

our ability to obtain funding under future licensing agreements or other collaborative relationships.
If we deplete our cash reserves and are unable to obtain additional funding, we may be forced to discontinue our operations and liquidate our assets.
Our auditors have issued a going concern opinion, and we will not be able to achieve our objectives and will have to cease operations if we cannot find adequate financing.
Our auditors issued an opinion, which includes a going concern explanatory paragraph, in connection with the audit of our annual consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023. A going concern paragraph in an audit opinion means that there is substantial doubt that we can continue as an ongoing business for the 12 months from the date the consolidated financial statements are issued. If we are unable to continue as an ongoing business, we might have to liquidate our assets and the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements. In addition, the inclusion of an explanatory paragraph regarding substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern and our lack of cash resources may materially adversely affect our share price and our ability to raise new capital or to enter into critical contractual relations with third parties. There is no assurance that we will be able to adequately fund our operations in the future.
We have written off the value of our pre-launch inventories of leronlimab and related raw materials, the costs of which were previously capitalized, and may be unable to use all or a portion of those inventories in the development of our product candidate.
Pre-launch inventories consist of costs of raw materials and work-in-progress related to our product candidate leronlimab. As of May 31, 2023, our inventories had been written off in full for accounting
 
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purposes. Although the inventories continue to be physically maintained and currently may be eligible for use in certain clinical contexts, we may be unable to use all or a portion of these inventories in the development of our product candidate.
Risks Related to Our Ability to Maintain an Effective Operational and Internal Controls Environment
The recruitment and retention of skilled directors, executives, employees, and consultants may be difficult and expensive, may result in dilution to our stockholders, and any failure to attract and retain such individuals may adversely affect our drug development and commercialization activities.
Our business depends on the skills, performance, and dedication of our officers and key scientific and technical advisors, as well as our directors. All of our current scientific advisors are independent contractors and are either self-employed or employed by other organizations. As a result, they may have conflicts of interest or other commitments, such as consulting or advisory contracts with other organizations, that may affect their ability to provide services to us in a timely manner. We are currently conducting a search for a new president and/or chief executive officer, and may need to recruit additional directors, executive management, employees, and advisors, particularly scientific and technical personnel. In addition, there is currently intense competition for skilled directors, executives, and employees with relevant scientific and technical expertise, and this competition is likely to continue. We compete for these qualified personnel against companies with greater financial resources than ours. These recruitment and retention efforts likely will require additional financial resources. In order to successfully recruit and retain qualified employees, we will need to offer a combination of salary, cash incentives, and equity compensation. Future issuances of our equity securities for compensatory purposes will dilute existing stockholders’ ownership interests and reduce the shares available for future funding transactions. If we are unable to attract and retain individuals with relevant scientific, technical, and managerial experience, we may be forced to limit or delay our product development activities or may experience difficulties in successfully conducting our business, which would adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
Our Chief Financial Officer has also been appointed as interim President while we search for a new President and/or Chief Executive Officer. The loss, temporary loss, or transition of members of our senior management team or any other key employees may adversely affect our business.
During the past 18 months, we have experienced significant turnover among our senior executives, and currently have only one executive officer. Cyrus Arman, who was our President beginning on July 9, 2022, was appointed as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Business Operations, a part time, nonexecutive position, by the Board effective July 7, 2023, following a medical leave of absence. Antonio Migliarese, our Chief Financial Officer, has been appointed to also fill the position of interim President beginning May 18, 2023. The Board has commenced a search for a new President and/or Chief Executive Officer. If we are successful in recruiting one or more individuals to executive positions, the complexity inherent in integrating a new key member of the senior management team with existing senior management may limit the effectiveness of any such successor or otherwise adversely affect our business. Leadership transitions and any disruptions that result are inherently difficult to manage and may cause uncertainty or a disruption to our business or increase the likelihood of turnover of other key officers and employees. Further, we may incur significant expenses related to any executive transition costs. Finding suitable replacements for senior management and other key employees can be difficult, and there is no assurance we will be successful in attracting or retaining qualified personnel.
Our success depends significantly on the individual and collective contributions of our senior management team and key employees. The individual and collective efforts of these employees are important as we continue our efforts to develop leronlimab. The loss of the services of a member of our senior management team or the inability to hire and retain experienced management personnel likely would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
If we are unable to effectively maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results and our stock price could be adversely affected.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related regulations require us to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year, and to include
 
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a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our Form 10-K for that fiscal year. Failure to maintain our controls or operation of these controls may harm our operations, decrease the reliability of our financial reporting, and cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could adversely affect our business and reduce our stock price.
Our information technology systems could fail to perform adequately or experience data corruption, cyber-based attacks, or network security breaches.
We rely on information technology networks and systems, including the internet, to process, transmit, and store electronic information. In particular, we depend on our information technology infrastructure to effectively manage our business data, finance, and other business processes and electronic communications between our personnel and corporate partners. If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain an appropriate technology infrastructure, security breaches or system failures of this infrastructure may result in system disruptions, shutdowns, or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, including patient information in violation of HIPAA requirements. In addition, our employees, contractors, and other corporate partners increasingly are working from remote locations. As a result, we rely on information technology systems that are outside our direct control. These systems are potentially vulnerable to cyber-based attacks and security breaches. In addition, cyber criminals are increasing their attacks on individual employees, including scams designed to trick victims into transferring sensitive data or funds or stealing credentials that compromise information systems. If one of our employees falls victim to these attacks, or our information technology systems or those of our partners are compromised, our operations could be disrupted, or we may suffer financial loss, loss or misappropriation of intellectual property or other critical assets, reputational harm, and regulatory fines and intervention, and our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Legal Proceedings
Our business, operating results, and financial condition could be negatively affected as a result of litigation and other demands made by stockholders.
We are and have been involved in legal proceedings and other claims brought by stockholders, including class actions alleging securities law violations, derivative actions alleging waste of corporate assets, unjust enrichment, other breaches of fiduciary duties by former directors and current and former executive officers, and demands by activist investors. Similar actions may occur in the future. While the Company welcomes opinions of all stockholders, responding to demands, litigation, proxy contests, or other initiatives by stockholders or activist investors may divert the attention of our Board, management team, and employees from their regular duties in the pursuit of business opportunities to enhance stockholder value. Such actions may also cause our existing or potential employees, strategic partners, and stockholders to have questions or doubts about the future direction of the Company and may provide our competitors with an opportunity to exploit these concerns. Such circumstances could cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
Class-action litigation filed against us could harm our business, and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all related costs and damages.
The market price of our common stock has historically experienced and may continue to experience significant volatility. In the past, we had been subject to putative class action lawsuits in which plaintiffs cited, among other things, volatility of our common stock. Litigation, whether or not successful, may result in diversion of our management’s attention and resources, and may require us to incur substantial costs, some of which may not be covered in full by insurance, which could harm our business and financial condition. During the course of litigation, there may be negative public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a further negative effect on the market price of our common stock. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
 
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We are subject to oversight by the SEC, FDA, and other regulatory agencies. Investigations and proceedings by those agencies may divert management’s focus and have a material adverse effect on our reputation and financial condition.
We are subject to the regulation and oversight by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and state regulatory agencies, in addition to the FDA and other federal regulatory agencies. As a result, we may face legal or administrative proceedings by these agencies. We have received subpoenas from the SEC and the U.S Department of Justice (the “DOJ”) requesting documents and information concerning, among other matters, leronlimab, our public statements regarding the use of leronlimab as a potential treatment for COVID19, HIV, and triple-negative breast cancer, related communications with the FDA, investors, and others, litigation involving former employees, our retention of investor relations consultants, and trading in our securities. On December 20, 2022, the DOJ announced the unsealing of a criminal indictment charging both our former CEO, Nader Z. Pourhassan, and Kazem Kazempour, CEO of Amarex Clinical Research LLC (“Amarex”), our former CRO. That same day, the SEC announced charges against both Mr. Pourhassan and Mr. Kazempour for alleged violations of federal securities laws. The Company is cooperating fully with the DOJ and SEC investigations. We are unable to predict the effect of any governmental investigations on our business, financial condition, or reputation. In addition, publicity surrounding any investigation, even if ultimately resolved in our favor, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation and other claims.
We are parties to a variety of litigation and other claims, in addition to the regulatory investigations and related proceedings described above. For example, two putative class action lawsuits have been filed against us and certain former officers and directors, asserting violations of federal securities laws under Section 10(b) and Section 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and alleging that the Company and certain former officers and directors made purportedly false or misleading statements and that some of the individual defendants violated Section 20A of the Exchange Act by selling shares of the Company’s common stock, purportedly while in possession of material nonpublic information. Separately, three purported stockholder derivative actions have been filed against certain former officers and directors; the Company was named as a nominal defendant. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
In addition, from time to time, we may also be involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters, relationships with partners, intellectual property disputes, and other business matters. Any such claims or investigations may be time-consuming, costly, divert management resources, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance in the future.
Risks Related to Development and Commercialization of Our Drug Candidate
We have been notified by Samsung of alleged breaches of our payment obligations to Samsung, which ultimately could result in termination of our agreements for manufacturing of our drug product and related services we expect Samsung to provide under the agreements.
Beginning in fiscal 2022, we have received communications from Samsung regarding alleged breaches of our agreements with Samsung relating to past due balances. The Company has been pursuing negotiations with Samsung regarding potential approaches to resolve the issues short of litigation, including proposals by each party for an alternative schedule of payments, and proposals by the Company to satisfy a portion of the Company’s payment obligations in the form of equity securities of the Company and to postpone or cancel provisions in the agreements calling for the manufacturing of additional drug product. There can be no assurance that we will be able to address the issues raised by Samsung or avoid being found in breach of our agreements with Samsung. Failure to resolve the issues may ultimately result in termination of our
 
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agreements with Samsung, which could jeopardize our ability to properly store our inventories of drug product and manufacture additional drug product when needed. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
Certain agreements and related license agreements require us to make significant milestone, royalty, and other payments, which will require additional financing and, in the event we do commercialize leronlimab, decrease the revenues we may ultimately receive on sales. To the extent that such milestone, royalty, and other payments are not timely made, the counterparties to such agreements in certain cases have repurchase and termination rights thereunder with respect to leronlimab.
Under agreements we have with Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Progenics”) and Lonza Sales AG (“Lonza”), as well as a Development and License Agreement (the “PDL License”) between Protein Design Labs (now AbbVie Inc. (“AbbVie”)) and Progenics, we are required to pay significant milestone payments, license fees for “system know-how” technology, and royalties related to leronlimab upon the occurrence of specified events. In order to make these milestone and license payments, we will need to raise additional funds. In addition, our royalty obligations will reduce the economic benefits to us of future sales, if any. To the extent that such milestone payments and royalties are not timely made, under their respective agreements, Progenics has certain repurchase rights relating to the assets sold to us, and AbbVie has certain termination rights relating to our license of leronlimab under the PDL License. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — PRO 140 Acquisition and Licensing Arrangements in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
If we are unable to obtain all required regulatory approvals for leronlimab, we will not be able to commercialize our primary product candidate, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price.
Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, may take many years to complete, and its outcome is uncertain. The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, approval, sale, marketing, advertising and promotion, pricing, export, import, and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries, with regulations differing from country to country. We are not permitted to market a drug candidate as prescription pharmaceutical products in the United States until we receive approval from the FDA, or in foreign markets until we receive the requisite approval from comparable regulatory authorities in foreign countries. In the United States, the FDA generally requires the completion of clinical trials of each drug to establish its safety and efficacy, and extensive pharmaceutical development to ensure its quality before approval. Regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions impose similar requirements. Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage are approved for commercialization. Receipt of necessary regulatory approval for the use of leronlimab for one or more indications is subject to a number of risks which include, among others:

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or institutional review boards (“IRBs”) may disagree with the future design or implementation of our clinical trials,

we may not be able to provide acceptable evidence of the safety and efficacy of our drug candidate,

the results of our clinical trials may not be satisfactory or may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for marketing approval,

patients in our clinical trials may suffer adverse effects for reasons that may or may not be related to our drug candidate,

the data collected from clinical trials may not be sufficient to support the submission of an application for marketing approval in the United States or elsewhere,

the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies, and

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.
 
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We cannot guarantee that regulators will agree with our assessment of the results of our past or future clinical trials or that such trials will be considered by regulators to have shown safety or efficacy of our product candidate. In particular, there is no guarantee that the FDA will lift the partial clinical hold placed on our HIV program. The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may require additional clinical trials or pre-clinical or other studies. Additionally, we have limited experience in filing the applications necessary to gain regulatory approvals and expect to continue to rely on consultants and our CROs to assist us in this process. Securing FDA approval requires the submission of pre-clinical, clinical, and/or pharmacokinetic data, information about product manufacturing processes and inspection of facilities, and supporting information for each therapeutic indication to establish a product candidate’s safety and efficacy for each indication. Our drug candidate may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities, or other characteristics that may preclude us from obtaining regulatory approval or prevent or limit commercial use with respect to one or all intended indications. Failure to obtain regulatory approval for leronlimab will prevent us from commercializing it as a prescription product, and our ability to generate revenue will be seriously impaired.
We are substantially dependent on the success of leronlimab. If we, either alone or with collaborators, are unable to complete the clinical development of, obtain and maintain marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize leronlimab, including with respect to adequate coverage and reimbursement, or if we continue to experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be seriously harmed.
We currently have no products approved for sale and are investing a significant portion of our resources in the development of leronlimab for marketing approval in the United States and potentially other countries. Our prospects are substantially dependent on our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for, and successfully commercialize leronlimab in the United States in one or more disease indications. The success of our Company will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

a safety, tolerability, and efficacy profile for leronlimab that is satisfactory to the FDA and potential foreign regulatory authorities,

timely receipt of marketing approvals for leronlimab from applicable regulatory authorities, including the FDA,

the performance of third-party contractors that we engage to manage our clinical studies and the resulting data,

obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret protection, and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally, including our ability to maintain our license agreement with AbbVie, as successor to Progenics,

protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio, including our ability to maintain our license agreement with AbbVie,

a continued acceptable safety profile for leronlimab following marketing approval, if any,

commercial acceptance of leronlimab by patients, the medical community, and third-party payors, and

our ability to position leronlimab to compete with other therapies.
Many of these factors are beyond our control. If we are unable to develop, receive marketing approval for, and successfully provide for commercialization of leronlimab on our own or through third parties, or if we continue to experience delays as a result of any of these factors or otherwise, our business will be substantially harmed.
Our competitors may develop drugs that are more effective, safer and less expensive than ours.
The biopharmaceutical industry is intensely competitive, and our future success depends on our ability to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage with respect to the design, development, and commercialization of product candidates. For example, new or improved therapies in the oncology and immunology arenas are the subject of frequent announcements. If approved for marketing by the FDA,
 
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depending on the approved clinical indication, leronlimab may be competing with existing and future treatments. Our competitors may:

develop drug candidates and market drugs that increase the levels of safety or efficacy that our product candidate will need to show in order to obtain regulatory approval,

develop drug candidates and market drugs that are less expensive or more effective than ours,

commercialize competing drugs before we or our partners can launch any products we are working to develop,

hold or obtain proprietary rights that could prevent us from commercializing our products, and

introduce therapies or market drugs that render our product candidate obsolete.
We expect to compete against large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and smaller companies that are collaborating with larger pharmaceutical companies, new companies, academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations. These competitors, in nearly all cases, operate research and development programs that have substantially greater financial resources than we do. Our competitors also have significantly greater experience in:

developing drug and other product candidates,

undertaking pre-clinical testing and clinical trials,

building relationships with key customers and opinion-leading physicians,

obtaining and maintaining FDA and other regulatory approvals,

formulating and manufacturing drugs,

launching, marketing, and selling drugs, and

providing management oversight for all of the above-listed operational functions.
If we fail to achieve superiority over other existing or newly developed treatments, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval. If our competitors market drugs that are less expensive, safer, or more effective than our product candidate, or which gain or maintain greater market acceptance, we may not be able to compete effectively.
We may not be able to identify, negotiate, and maintain the strategic alliances necessary to develop and commercialize our products and technologies, and we will be dependent on our corporate partners if we do.
We may seek to enter into a strategic alliance with a pharmaceutical company for further development and approval of our product candidate in one or more indications. Strategic alliances could potentially provide us with additional funds, expertise, access, and other resources in exchange for exclusive or non-exclusive licenses or other rights to the technologies and products that we are currently developing or may explore in the future. We cannot give any assurance we will be able to enter into strategic relationships with a pharmaceutical company or other strategic partner in the near future or at all or maintain our current relationships. In addition, we cannot assure that any agreements we may reach will achieve our goals or be on terms that prove to be economically beneficial to us. We anticipate that if we were to enter into strategic or contractual relationships, we may become dependent on the successful performance of our partners or counterparties. If they fail to perform as expected, such failure could adversely affect our financial condition, lead to increases in our capital needs, or hinder or delay our development efforts.
Known third-party patent rights could delay or otherwise adversely affect our planned development and sale of leronlimab. We have identified but not exhaustively analyzed other patents that could relate to our proposed products.
We are aware of patent rights held by a third party that may cover certain compositions within our leronlimab candidate. The patent holder has the right to prevent others from making, using, or selling a drug that incorporates the patented compositions, while the patent remains in force. While we believe that the third party’s patent rights will not affect our planned development, regulatory clearance, and eventual
 
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commercial production, marketing, and sale of leronlimab, there can be no assurance that this will be the case. We believe the relevant patent expires before we expect to commercially introduce leronlimab. In addition, the Hatch-Waxman exemption to U.S. patent law permits all uses of compounds in clinical trials and for other purposes reasonably related to obtaining the FDA clearance of drugs that will be sold only after patent expiration; we believe our use of leronlimab in those FDA-related activities would not infringe the patent holder’s rights. However, were the patent holder to assert its rights against us before expiration of the patent for activities unrelated to the FDA clearance, the development and ultimate sale of a leronlimab product could be significantly delayed, and we could incur expenses for defending a patent infringement suit and for damages that may relate to periods prior to the patent’s expiration. In connection with our acquisition of rights to leronlimab, our patent counsel conducted a freedom-to-operate search that identified other patents that could relate to our proposed leronlimab candidate. Based upon research and analysis to date, we believe leronlimab likely does not infringe those patent rights. If any of the holders of the identified patents were to assert patent rights against us, the development and sale of leronlimab could be delayed, we could be required to spend time and money defending patent litigation, and we could incur liability for infringement or be enjoined from producing our products if the patent holders prevailed in an infringement suit.
Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties
We have a very limited number of internal research and development personnel, making us dependent on consulting relationships and strategic alliances with industry partners.
We have few employees dedicated to quality control and CMC activities. We rely and intend to continue to rely on third parties to supplement many of these critical functions. If we commence additional clinical trials, we will contract with third-party, full-service CROs to manage our trials. As a result, we are likely to be dependent on consultants and strategic partners in our development activities, and it may be administratively challenging for us to monitor and coordinate these relationships. If we do not appropriately manage our relationships with third parties, we may not be able to successfully manage development, testing, and preparation of regulatory filings for our product or commercialize any approved product, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and stock price.
We may continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs and third-party manufacturers, to conduct clinical trials for our product candidate, leronlimab, and to produce our pre-clinical and clinical product candidate supplies. Such third parties are subject to significant regulation. A failure by such third parties to properly and successfully perform their obligations to us, or failure of manufacturers on which we rely to meet regulatory requirements, may result in our inability to obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our product candidate.
We are dependent on third parties for important aspects of our product development strategy. We do not have the required financial and human resources to carry out independently the pre-clinical and clinical development of our current product candidate. We also do not have the capability or resources to manufacture, store, market or sell our current product candidate. As a result, we contract with and rely on third parties to perform such important functions. We compete with larger companies for the resources of these third parties. Although we plan to continue to rely on these third parties to conduct any future clinical trials and manufacturing, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its general investigational plan and protocol and adheres to the FDA’s regulations regarding Good Laboratory Practice and that the manufacturing of our product complies with the FDA’s current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) enforced through its facilities inspection program. Moreover, we are required to comply with regulations and standards, including good clinical practices, for designing, conducting, monitoring, recording, analyzing, and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that the data and results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. Our reliance on third parties that we do not control does not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. The third parties on whom we rely generally may terminate their engagements with us at any time. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their duties under their agreements with us, if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain, process, and analyze is compromised for any reason, or if they otherwise fail to comply with clinical trial protocols or meet expected deadlines, future clinical trials that we may undertake may experience delays or may fail to meet regulatory requirements. If our clinical trials do not meet regulatory requirements or if these third parties need to be replaced, our pre-clinical development
 
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activities or clinical trials may be extended, delayed, suspended, or terminated. If any of these events occur, or if problems develop in our relationships with third parties, or if such parties fail to perform as expected, we may experience delays or lack of progress, significant cost increases, changes in our strategies, and even failure of our product initiatives, potentially resulting in our inability to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidate and harming our reputation. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. and — Amarex Dispute in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property Rights
Our success depends substantially upon our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection relating to our product candidate and future product candidates.
Due to evolving legal standards relating to the patentability, validity, and enforceability of patents covering pharmaceutical inventions and the claim scope of patents, our ability to enforce our existing patents and to obtain and enforce patents that may issue from any pending or future patent applications is uncertain and involves complex legal, scientific, and factual questions. To date, no consistent policy has emerged regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents. We have pending patents for certain indications for our core product candidate and continue to seek patent coverage for various potential therapeutic applications for leronlimab. However, we cannot be sure that any patents will issue from any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us. Even if patents do issue, we cannot be sure that the claims of these patents will be held valid or enforceable by a court of law, will provide us with any significant protection against competing products, or will afford us a commercial advantage over competitive products. If one or more products resulting from our product candidate is approved for sale by the FDA and we do not have adequate intellectual property protection for those products, competitors could duplicate them for approval and sale in the United States without repeating the extensive testing required of us or our partners to obtain FDA approval, once our data exclusivity period has expired.
If we are sued for infringing on third-party intellectual property rights, it will be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome would have a significant adverse effect on our business. We may also undertake infringement or other legal proceedings against third parties, causing us to spend substantial resources on litigation and exposing our own intellectual property portfolio to challenge.
Our ability to commercialize our product candidate depends on our ability to use, manufacture, and sell that product without infringing on the patents or other proprietary rights of third parties. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist in the monoclonal antibody therapeutic area in which we are developing our product candidate and seeking new potential product candidates. There may be existing patents, unknown to us, on which our activities with our product candidate could infringe.
If a third party claims our actions or products or technologies infringe on its patents or other proprietary rights, we could face a number of issues that could seriously harm our competitive position, including, but not limited to:

infringement and other intellectual property claims that, even if meritless, can be costly and time-consuming, delay the regulatory approval process, and divert management’s attention from our core business operations,

substantial damages for infringement if a court determines that our products or technologies infringe a third party’s patent or other proprietary rights,

a court prohibiting us from selling or licensing our products or technologies unless the holder licenses the patent or other proprietary rights to us, which it is not required to do, and

even if a license is available from a holder, we may have to pay substantial royalties or grant cross-licenses to our patents or other proprietary rights.
If any of these events occur, it could significantly harm our operations and financial condition and negatively affect our stock price. Additionally, although no third party asserted a claim of infringement
 
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against us, others may hold proprietary rights that could prevent our product candidate from being marketed. Any patent-related legal action against us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to our product candidate or our processes could subject us to potential liability for damages and require us to obtain a license to continue to manufacture or market leronlimab or any other product candidates. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions or that any license required under any of these patents would be made available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Further, we cannot be sure that we could redesign leronlimab or any other product candidates or processes to avoid infringement, if necessary. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding, or the failure to obtain necessary licenses, could prevent us from developing and commercializing leronlimab or another product candidate, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
We may come to believe that third parties are infringing on our patents or other proprietary rights. To prevent infringement or unauthorized use, we may need to file infringement and/or misappropriation suits, which are very expensive and time-consuming and would distract management’s attention. Also, in an infringement or misappropriation proceeding, a court may decide that one or more of our patents is invalid, unenforceable, or both, in which case third parties may be able to use our technology without paying license fees or royalties. Even if the validity of our patents is upheld, a court may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the ground that the other party’s activities are not covered by our patents.
We may become involved in disputes with our present or future contract partners over intellectual property ownership or other matters, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business.
Inventions discovered in the course of performance of contracts with third parties may become jointly owned by our strategic partners and us, in some cases, and the exclusive property of one of us, in other cases. Under some circumstances, it may be difficult to determine who owns a particular invention or whether it is jointly owned, and disputes could arise regarding ownership or use of those inventions. Other disputes may also arise relating to the performance or alleged breach of our agreements with third parties. Any disputes could be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome could have a significant adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our common stock is classified as “penny stock” and trading of our shares may be restricted by the SEC’s penny stock regulations.
Rules 15g-1 through 15g-9 promulgated under the Exchange Act impose sales practice and disclosure requirements on certain brokers-dealers who engage in transactions involving a “penny stock.” The SEC has adopted regulations which generally define “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share or an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. Our common stock is covered by the penny stock rules, which impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell to persons other than established customers and “accredited investors.” The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from the rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document in a form prepared by the SEC that provides information about penny stocks and the nature and level of risks in the penny stock market. The broker-dealer also must provide the prospective investor with current bid and offer quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and its salesperson in the transaction, and monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the investor’s account. In addition, the penny stock rules require that, prior to a transaction in a penny stock that is not otherwise exempt, the broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s written agreement to the transaction. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the level of trading activity in the secondary market for stock that is subject to these penny stock rules. Consequently, these penny stock rules may affect the ability of broker-dealers to trade our securities. We believe that the penny stock rules may discourage investor interest in and limit the marketability of our common stock.
 
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The trading price of our common stock has been and could remain volatile, and the market price of our common stock may decrease.
The market price of our common stock has historically experienced and may continue to experience significant volatility. From September 1, 2022 through August 31, 2023, the market price of our common stock has fluctuated from a high of $0.64 per share to a low of $0.15 per share. The volatile nature of our common share price may cause investment losses for our stockholders. In addition, the market price of stock in small capitalization biotech companies is often driven by investor sentiment, expectation, and perception, all of which may be independent of fundamental, objective, and intrinsic valuation metrics or traditional financial performance metrics, thereby exacerbating volatility. In addition, our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Markets marketplace, which may increase price quotation volatility and could limit liquidity, all of which may adversely affect the market price of our shares.
Since our inception, we have been insolvent and have required debt and equity financing to maintain operations. We expect our debt service obligations and our need for additional funding to finance operations will cause additional substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
Since our inception, we have not achieved cash flows from revenues sufficient to cover basic operating costs. As a result, we have relied heavily on debt and equity financing. Equity financing, including securities convertible into equity, in particular has had a dilutive effect on our common stock, which has hampered our ability to attract reasonable financing terms.
The terms of our convertible note financings require us to make periodic debt repayments to reduce the outstanding balance of our debt. As a result, we likely will be required to use a significant portion of our available cash to repay our debt and satisfy other payment obligations, which will reduce the amount of capital available to finance our operations and other business activities. We expect to continue to seek to exchange all or part of our outstanding debt for shares of common stock. If the Company enters into any future exchange offers, they will likely be negotiated at a discount to the market price of our common stock and will cause additional dilution to our existing stockholders. If the convertible noteholders sell the common stock they receive in exchange for outstanding debt, this could result in a decline in our stock price. In addition, the exercise of our outstanding warrants and stock options, which are exercisable for or convertible into shares of our common stock, and the exercise of which we have encouraged through public or private warrant exchange offers from time to time, would dilute our existing common stockholders.
Issuances of additional equity or convertible debt securities will continue to reduce the percentage ownership of our then-existing stockholders. We may also be required to grant potential investors new securities rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those possessed by our then-existing stockholders in order to induce them to invest in our company. The issuance of these senior securities may adversely affect the holders of our common stock as a result of preferential dividend and liquidation rights over the common stock and dilution of the voting power of the common stock.
As the result of these and other factors, the issuance of additional equity or convertible debt securities may have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock. For the foreseeable future, we will be required to continue to rely on debt and equity financing to maintain our operations.
Our certificate of incorporation permits our Board to create new series of preferred stock without further approval by our stockholders, which could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.
Our Board has the authority to fix and determine the relative rights and preferences of preferred stock. Currently, our Board has the authority to designate and issue approximately 4.9 million additional shares of our preferred stock without further stockholder approval. As a result, our Board could authorize the issuance of another series of preferred stock that would grant to holders the preferred right to our assets upon liquidation, the right to receive dividend payments before dividends are distributed to the holders of common stock, and the right to redemption of the shares, together with a premium, prior to the redemption of our common stock. In addition, our Board could authorize the issuance of a series of preferred stock that has greater voting power than our common stock or that is convertible into our common stock, which could decrease the relative voting power of our common stock or result in dilution to our existing stockholders.
 
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Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws, and Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult, and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the current members of our Board and management.
Certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws could discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change of control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for shares of common stock. Furthermore, these provisions could frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove members of our Board. These provisions also could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. Stockholders who wish to participate in these transactions may not have the opportunity to do so. Among other things, these provisions:

allow us to designate and issue shares of preferred stock, without stockholder approval, that could adversely affect the rights, preferences, and privileges of the holders of our common stock and could make it more difficult or less economically beneficial to acquire or seek to acquire us,

provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only by the Board acting pursuant to a resolution approved by the affirmative majority of the entire Board, and

do not include a provision for cumulative voting in the election of directors. Under cumulative voting, a minority stockholder holding a sufficient number of shares may be able to ensure the election of one or more directors. The absence of cumulative voting may have the effect of limiting the ability of minority stockholders to effect changes in the composition of our Board.
In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), which may, unless certain criteria are met, prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a prescribed period of time.
We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid a cash dividend on our common shares and we do not anticipate declaring or paying dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future. We expect to use future financing proceeds and earnings, if any, to fund operating expenses. Consequently, common stockholders’ only opportunity to achieve a return on their investment is if the price of our stock appreciates and they sell their shares at a profit. We cannot assure common stockholders of a positive return on their investment when they sell their shares or that stockholders will not lose the entire amount of their investment.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders. A portion of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus are issuable upon exercise of warrants issued to the selling stockholders. The exercise price of such warrants ranges from $0.10 to $0.50 per share. The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances, including stock splits or dividends, mergers, or reclassifications or similar events. Upon any exercise of warrants for cash, the selling stockholders will pay us the exercise price. The warrants issued to the placement agent include a cashless exercise feature, while all other warrants do not. To the extent we receive proceeds from the cash exercise of outstanding warrants, we intend to use the proceeds for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus. All selling and other expenses incurred by the selling stockholders will be borne by the selling stockholders. See “Selling Stockholders” and “Plan of Distribution” below.
 
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MARKET FOR OUR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Market Information
Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Markets marketplace under the trading symbol CYDY. Over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission, and may not necessarily represent actual transactions. Historically, trading in our stock has been volatile and the trades that occurred cannot be characterized as those in a more established public trading market. As a result, the trading prices of our common stock may not reflect the price that would result if our stock was traded on a more mature market.
Holders
The number of record holders of our common stock on August 31, 2023 was approximately 1,000.
Dividends
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if declared by our Board. While we have no contractual restrictions or restrictions in our governing documents on our ability to pay dividends, other than the preferential rights provided to the holders of our outstanding preferred stock, we have never paid cash dividends to holders of common stock and do not anticipate paying any in the foreseeable future as we retain earnings, if any, for use in our operations.
Also, under Section 170 of the DGCL, we are permitted to pay dividends only out of capital surplus or, if none, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared or net profits from the preceding fiscal year. As of May 31, 2023, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $841.7 million and had net loss in each fiscal year since inception, and therefore is prohibited from paying any dividends, whether in cash, other property, or shares of capital stock.
Refer to Note 6, Convertible Instruments and Accrued Interest in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
 
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OUR BUSINESS
Corporate History/Business Overview
CytoDyn Inc. was originally incorporated under the laws of Colorado on May 2, 2002, under the name RexRay Corporation and, effective August 27, 2015, reincorporated under the laws of Delaware. The Company is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development of innovative treatments for multiple therapeutic indications based on its product candidate, leronlimab (also referred to as PRO 140), a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (“CCR5”). The pre-clinical and early clinical development of PRO 140 was led by Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Progenics”) through 2011. The Company acquired the asset from Progenics in October 2012. In November 2018, the United States Adopted Names Council adopted “leronlimab” as the official nonproprietary name for PRO 140. The Company has conducted clinical trials of leronlimab as a viral entry inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”), believed to competitively bind to the N-terminus and second extracellular loop of the CCR5 receptor. For immunology, the CCR5 receptor is believed to be implicated in immune-mediated illnesses such as NASH. The CCR5 receptor may also be present on cells that undergo malignant transformation and may also be present in the tumor microenvironment. Studies of leronlimab have also been conducted in NASH and solid tumors in oncology, in addition to HIV, where CCR5 is believed to play an integral role.
Our principal business office is located at 1111 Main Street, Suite 660, Vancouver, Washington 98660. Our website can be found at www.cytodyn.com. We make available on our website, free of charge, the proxy statements and reports on Forms 8-K, 10-K, and 10-Q that we file with the SEC, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. By making this and other references to the Company’s website, we do not intend to incorporate by reference any information posted on our website into this prospectus. The website should not be considered part of this prospectus.
The annual financial statements included in this prospectus include the accounts of CytoDyn Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary CytoDyn Operations Inc.
Business Overview
CytoDyn’s core areas of clinical development are HIV, NASH, and solid tumors in oncology. The current areas of clinical focus in HIV are the lifting of the clinical hold, creation of a long-acting formulation of leronlimab and an HIV functional cure in using AAV. In NASH, we plan to focus on the general population of those affected by NASH, and the subpopulation of patients with NASH and HIV. Regarding oncology, our focus remains on combination therapy for solid tumors to explore the potential of leronlimab in the tumor microenvironment and the potential benefit for decreasing angiogenesis, potential macrophage repolarization, decreasing metastasis, and the potential to mitigate regulatory T-cells (“Tregs”) infiltration of the tumor microenvironment. At this time, there are no approved therapies for NASH and current highly active antiretroviral therapy (“HAART”) regimens often contribute to hepatoxicity. Patients with HIV and NASH represent an unmet medical need, and we believe leronlimab may play a vital role in this population to reduce HIV viral load, steatosis, and fibro-inflammation. Additionally, even after FDA approves therapies for NASH, because of the complexity of NASH affecting multiple systems in the body, we believe that an opportunity exists for a combination therapy.
Our current business strategy is to continue to pursue the clinical development of leronlimab, utilizing the resources available to us and through additional fundraising, which may include the following:
1.
Seeking to lift the FDA partial clinical hold placed on our HIV program.
2.
Advancing our NASH program to a Phase 2b or Phase 2b/3 trial for steatosis and liver fibrosis associated with NASH, and/or advancing a pre-clinical study to identify the potential for a combination therapy clinical trial.
3.
Exploring a study for patients with HIV and NASH.
4.
Continuing to identify the next steps in clinical development and exploring potential business opportunities to continue the investigation of leronlimab for solid tumors in oncology, based on
 
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data generated to date by the Company, including potential opportunities to continue our Phase 2 program for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with current standard of care, as well as exploring a Phase 2 colon cancer trial with current standard of care and other cancer and immunologic indications.
5.
Continuing our work on developing a long-acting version of leronlimab and pursuing proof of concept studies for HIV treatment and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (“PrEP”) using leronlimab and AAV.
We will need significant additional funding to execute the above business strategy and conduct additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials as we seek FDA approval to commercialize leronlimab.
As further discussed in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Inventories, and Note 3, Inventories, net, in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus, the Company previously capitalized procured or produced pre-launch inventories in preparation for product launches. As of May 31, 2023, the Company had reserved for or written-off the full $99.2 million of previously capitalized pre-launch inventories. Although these inventories have been written-off from an accounting perspective, they can be used in certain clinical contexts, and could possibly be sold commercially upon regulatory approval if the shelf-lives can be extended as a result of the performance of on-going and future stability tests.
Recent Corporate Developments
Cyrus Arman, who was our President beginning on July 9, 2022, was appointed as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Business Operations, a part time, nonexecutive position, by the Board effective July 7, 2023, following a medical leave of absence that began on May 18, 2023. Antonio Migliarese, our Chief Financial Officer, has been appointed to also fill the position of interim President beginning May 18, 2023. The Board has commenced a search for a new President and/or Chief Executive Officer.
At the Company’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held on November 9, 2023, our stockholders will be asked to vote on an amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation to provide for an increase in the total number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance from 1,350,000,000 shares to 1,750,000,000 shares.
Background: Leronlimab as a CCR5 Antagonist
We are focused on developing leronlimab, a CCR5 receptor antagonist, to be used as a platform drug for various indications. The CCR5 receptor is a protein located on the surface of various cells including white blood cells and cancer cells. On white blood cells, it serves as a receptor for chemical attractants called chemokines. Chemokines are the key orchestrators of leukocyte trafficking by attracting immune cells to the sites of inflammation. At the site of an inflammatory reaction, chemokines are released. These chemokines are specific for CCR5 and cause the migration of T-cells to these sites promoting further inflammation. The CCR5 receptor is also the co-receptor needed for certain strains of HIV to infect healthy T-cells.
The mechanism of action (“MOA”) of leronlimab has the potential to orchestrate the movement of T-cells to inflammatory sites, which could be instrumental in diminishing the inflammatory responses. Leronlimab is a unique humanized monoclonal antibody. Leronlimab binds to the second extracellular loop and N-terminus of the CCR5 receptor, and due to its selectivity and target-specific mechanism of action, it does not appear to activate the immune function of the CCR5 receptor through agonist activity. This apparent target specificity differentiates leronlimab from other CCR5 antagonists. Leronlimab is a competitive rather than allosteric inhibitor of the CCR5 receptor. Other potential advantages of leronlimab are believed to include longer half-life and less frequent dosing requirements compared to current standard of care daily regimens.
We believe leronlimab prevents CCR5 tropic strains of HIV, which are the majority of all cases, from using the CCR5 receptor as an entry gateway for healthy cells. Pre-clinical research has shown that leronlimab blocks calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor when present on the cancer cell surface. Research also suggests calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor is a crucial component to the spread of metastatic cancer. We view the CCR5 receptor as more than the door for HIV to enter T-cells; it may also be a crucial component in inflammatory responses. The CCR5 receptor has been identified as a potential
 
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target in HIV, graft-versus-host disease (“GvHD”), NASH, cancer metastasis, transplantation medicine, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke recovery, and a variety of inflammatory conditions, including COVID-19. This could present the potential for multiple opportunities for leronlimab, such as NASH, cancers, and transplantation rejection, among other indications.
Leronlimab and HIV
We believe that leronlimab shows promise as a powerful antiviral agent with the potential advantage of lower toxicity and less frequent dosing requirements as compared to certain daily drug therapies currently in use for the treatment of HIV. Leronlimab belongs to a class of HIV therapies known as viral entry inhibitors that block HIV from entering and infecting specific cells. Leronlimab blocks HIV from entering a cell by binding to a receptor called CCR5, a normal cell surface receptor protein to which CCR5 tropic strains of HIV, referred to as “R5” strains, attach as part of HIV’s entry into a cell. Leronlimab binds to a precise site on CCR5 that R5 strains of HIV use to enter the cell and, in doing so, inhibits the ability of these strains of HIV to infect the cell. As a result, we believe leronlimab represents a distinct class of CCR5 inhibitors with advantageous virological and immunological properties and may provide a unique tool to treat HIV-infected patients. We plan to explore the potential for leronlimab to be used in PrEP if a longer acting version of subcutaneous leronlimab is successfully developed. This longer acting version could also potentially be used in combination with standard of care therapies to treat HIV patients.
We continue to believe leronlimab is uniquely positioned to address the HIV market, as an alternative, or in addition to current therapies, which are failing primarily due to patient non-compliance, which causes drug resistance. Several factors give rise to patient non-compliance issues, such as toxicity and side effects, coupled with the need for a strict daily dosing regimen. In 26 clinical studies previously conducted, leronlimab was generally well tolerated. In addition, there were no dose-limiting toxicities or patterns of drug-related toxicities observed during these trials. We believe the results of these trials establish that leronlimab’s antiviral activity is potent, rapid, prolonged, dose-dependent, and statistically significant. Because leronlimab’s MOA as a monoclonal antibody in HIV is a relatively new therapeutic approach, it provides a potentially advantageous method of suppressing the virus in treatment-experienced patients who have failed a prior HIV regimen and need new treatment options.
To date, leronlimab has been tested and administered to patients predominantly as a subcutaneous injection once per week. We believe that if leronlimab is approved by the FDA for use as an injectable for HIV, it may be an attractive and marketable therapeutic option for patients, particularly in the following scenarios:

Patients experiencing difficulties with existing treatment regimens due to side effects or medical comorbidities;

Patients with difficulty adhering to daily drug regimens;

Patients who poorly tolerate existing therapies; and

Patients with compromised organ function, such as hepatoxicity or renal insufficiency.
In 2016, we initiated a pivotal Phase 2b/3 trial for leronlimab as a combination therapy with existing HAART drug regimens for highly treatment-experienced HIV patients. The trial was completed in February 2018 and achieved its primary endpoint with a p-value of 0.0032. Most of the patients who completed this trial transitioned to an FDA-cleared rollover study, as requested by the treating physicians, to enable them to have continued access to leronlimab. This pivotal trial was the basis for the Company’s BLA submission to the FDA which was subsequently withdrawn by the Company as further discussed below. We also conducted a rollover study for HIV, as combination therapy, designed for patients who had successfully completed the Phase 2b/3 combination therapy trial and for whom the treating physicians requested a continuation of leronlimab therapy to maintain suppressed viral load. Some of the patients reached four years of treatment in this extension arm. As part of the partial clinical hold imposed in March 2022, these patients were transitioned to current standard of care.
Partial clinical hold on HIV program
During 2019 and 2020, the Company’s efforts centered on the preparation and submission of a Biologic License Application (“BLA”) for leronlimab as a combination therapy for HAART patients. In
 
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July 2020, the Company received a Refusal to File letter from the FDA regarding its BLA submission. The FDA informed us that the BLA did not contain certain information and data needed to complete a substantive review and, therefore, the FDA would not file the BLA. In November 2021, the Company resubmitted the non-clinical and CMC sections of the BLA. In March 2022, the FDA notified the Company that it had placed a partial clinical hold on the Company’s HIV program in the United States. Under the partial clinical hold, no new clinical studies may be initiated under the investigational new drug (“IND”) authorization for our HIV program until the clinical hold is resolved. In October 2022, the Company voluntarily withdrew its BLA submission due to management’s conclusion that a significant risk existed that the BLA would not receive FDA approval due to the inadequate process and performance around the monitoring and oversight of the clinical data from its clinical trials by its former CRO.
Recent efforts by the Company have been focused on actions that will allow us to resolve this partial clinical hold. During the third fiscal quarter ended February 28, 2023, the Company submitted the documents requested by the FDA in its March 2022 clinical hold letter. Subsequently, the FDA responded through written communication to the Company, requesting additional information and clarification regarding our benefit-risk assessment for the HIV population, which had previously been submitted, and made a supplemental request that the Company submit an IND amendment containing the proposed general investigational plan for the coming year, appropriate protocols, and any additional information supporting the proposed investigation under the HIV program IND. In March 2023, the Company responded to and submitted to the FDA the additional information and clarifications requested for the items previously requested. The FDA then responded with an additional written request for information relating to the benefit-risk assessment, as well as requesting the submission of a new protocol for the HIV indication. At the end of March 2023, the Company and the FDA held an informal meeting in which the FDA clarified certain questions with respect to the clinical hold submission and further information requests made by the FDA. The Company is currently preparing a supplemental submission to address items discussed with the FDA during the informal meeting.
Also, the Company is in a legal dispute with its former CRO in which it alleges that the former CRO failed to perform services to an acceptable professional standard and certain services required by the parties’ agreements, that the Company was billed for services the CRO did not perform and that, as a result of these failures, the Company has suffered avoidable delays in obtaining regulatory approval of leronlimab and has paid for services not performed. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Amarex Dispute in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
HIV Pre-Clinical Development of Long-Acting CCR5 Antagonist
In December 2022, researchers from Oregon Health and Sciences University (“OHSU”), an academic research collaboration partner of the Company, presented at the HIV DART Conference and the HIV Persistence During Therapy Conference results from two recently completed pre-clinical studies performed on macaque monkeys for two different potential longer-acting therapeutics targeting the CCR5 receptor. The first longer-acting potential therapeutic is a modified monoclonal antibody designed to have a longer half-life, which could lead to the development of an HIV prophylactic for humans at high risk of contracting HIV. The second longer-acting potential therapeutic is a gene therapy that could lead to the development of a functional cure for humans living with HIV. While both longer-acting therapeutics are still in the early stages of development, early data from the macaque monkey studies suggest that dosing intervals could be increased from once weekly to once every three months. Data from both potential therapeutics were also presented during the Company’s R&D Investor Update on December 7, 2022, which is available on the Company’s website.
In March 2023, the Company entered into a joint development agreement with a third-party company to develop one or more longer-acting molecules. These development efforts could potentially lead to a modified therapeutic that will have greater acceptance by patients, which may also lead to extended intellectual property protection thus expanding the Company’s patent portfolio.
Leronlimab and NASH
We believe that the CCR5 receptor is also a crucial component in inflammatory responses. Some disease processes that could potentially benefit from CCR5 blockade include transplantation rejection,
 
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neuroinflammation, chronic inflammation, cancer, and NASH. Due to leronlimab’s MOA, we believe leronlimab may have the potential for reduced side effects over other CCR5 antagonists and may be able to prevent the progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (“NAFLD”) into NASH. NAFLD is an inflammatory disease caused by the build-up of fat in hepatocytes (steatosis). In severe cases, NAFLD progresses into NASH. NASH is a chronic liver disease characterized by the presence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Patients with advanced fibrosis due to NASH are at significantly higher risk of liver related mortality. There is currently no approved drug for NASH. It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adults in the United States have NAFLD, while 3% to 12% of adults in the United States have NASH. If left untreated, NASH may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and is expected to become the leading cause of liver transplantation. Further, liver disease is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related death in HIV patients. The Company is identifying the next steps in clinical development to continue the investigation of leronlimab in the NASH indication and in HIV patients with NASH.
In NASH, liver homeostasis is impaired due to an accumulation of toxic lipids which can activate both Kupffer cells (KCs) and tissue-resident macrophages resulting in the production of fibrogenic cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein1 (MCP1). Not only do these cytokines/chemokines promote transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts (the primary source for fibrillary collagens), but they also amplify the immune response by recruiting additional cells into the damaged area. Recruitment of extra-hepatic inflammatory cells to the site of hepatic injury is typically mediated by interactions between cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. It has also been shown that patients with NASH also have high levels of CCR5 and the associated ligand, CCL5, thus demonstrating a potential role of CCR5 and its ligands in liver fibrosis.
NASH Pre-Clinical Development
The potential for leronlimab in the treatment of NASH was demonstrated in a pre-clinical model of fatty liver disease. Immunodeficient, NOD-SCID Gamma (NSG) mice were fed a high fat, NASH-inducing diet, transplanted with human stem cells to repopulate the deficient immune system, and treated with leronlimab. Sixteen (16) male NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ, commonly known as the NOD scid IL-2 receptor gamma knockout mice (NSG), were first humanized by intravenous inoculation with normal human umbilical cord blood cells (105). After 5 weeks on normal mouse chow, mice were successfully humanized, demonstrating >25% human CD45 cells in peripheral blood. Mice were switched to high fat (52%) high cholesterol (1.25%) diet (FPC diet: fructose, palmitate, cholesterol, trans-fat; Envigo-Teklad TD.160785). Leronlimab and control antibody (normal human IgG, Sigma) were administered i.p. at a dose of 2mg i.p. twice weekly, n=8 mice/group. The results showed that leronlimab inhibited fatty liver development, a key characteristic of early-stage NASH, such that treatment of humanized NSG mice with leronlimab caused a three-fold reduction in hepatic steatosis compared to control in an animal model of high fructose, high palmitate, high cholesterol diet.
NASH Phase 2a Exploratory Study
The Company has reported clinical data from patients with NASH from the CDI-NASH-01 trial which was designed as a multi-center Phase 2a study and was subsequently converted into an exploratory study to evaluate the dose, efficacy, and safety of leronlimab at 350 mg and 700 mg, versus placebo. The study also included an expansive biomarker program designed to inform future clinical trials and to more fully understand leronlimab’s mechanism of action within the NASH setting. CDI-NASH-01 was conducted in two parts. Part 1 of the study was to assess the efficacy of leronlimab 700 mg (n=22) in improving NAFLD/NASH measures in adult patients diagnosed with NASH compared to placebo (n=28). Part 2 was subsequently added to assess leronlimab 350 mg in improving NAFLD/NASH measures in adult patients diagnosed with NASH (n=22). In Part 1 of the study, eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to one of the two study arms to receive either leronlimab 700mg (Group A), or placebo (Group B), given once per week (±1day) at the study site for up to 13 weeks during the treatment period (with up to 60 participants). In Part 2 of the study, eligible subjects enrolled to receive leronlimab 350 mg open-label given once per week (±1day) at the study site for up to 13 weeks during the treatment period (with up to 28 participants). The primary efficacy objective was percent change from baseline in hepatic fat fraction, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) at week 14. The secondary efficacy
 
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objective was absolute change from baseline in fibro-inflammatory activity in the liver as assessed by MRI-corrected T1 imaging (MRI-cT1) at week 14. MRI-cT1 is obtained by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and is a quantitative metric for assessing a composite of liver inflammation and fibrosis, expressed in milliseconds (msec). MRI-PDFF is being studied as an imaging surrogate endpoint for the fat density in the liver. MRI-cT1 is being studied as an imaging surrogate endpoint for hepatic fibro-inflammation. This is a critical unmet need in the NASH space, as many agents have been unable to show reductions in fibro-inflammation despite reductions in hepatic steatosis.
All analyses performed are being treated as exploratory. Treatment with leronlimab was well tolerated in both Part 1 and Part 2 compared to placebo. In Part 1 of the study, leronlimab 700 mg did not reduce mean change in PDFF and cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. placebo. In Part 2, leronlimab 350 mg reduced mean change in PDFF and cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. the placebo group from Part 1, despite increased degree of baseline fibro-inflammation. In the combined group of patients with moderate (≥ 875 msec) and severe (≥ 950 msec) cT1 values at baseline, leronlimab 350 mg reduced cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. placebo. Based on post hoc CCR5 haplotype analysis of a small subgroup (n=5), we are considering further investigation of the 700mg dose of leronlimab for specific haplotypes.
Leronlimab and Cancer
Research indicates that the CCR5 receptor is a potential “GPS” system of a cancer cell that promotes metastatic disease. Pre-clinical studies have shown that leronlimab blocks the calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor and has the potential to disable this GPS system. CCR5 inhibition may disrupt signaling and ultimately the spread of CCR5+ Circulating Tumor Cells (“CTCs”). Most current therapies are directed to the primary tumor rather than the movement or spread of cancer in the bloodstream. It is metastatic disease and not the primary tumor that is the cause of death in most cancer patients.
Research has shown that most sampled breast cancer patients in certain studies had increased CCR5 expression in their tumors. Increased CCR5 expression is an indicator of disease status in several cancers. Research has shown multiple key properties of the CCR5’s role in cancer. The first is that the CCR5 receptor on cancer cells potentially plays a role in the migration and invasion of cells into the bloodstream, which may lead to metastasis of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. The second is that blocking the CCR5 receptor on Tregs also turns on anti-tumor fighting properties restoring immune function. The third key finding is that blockage of the CCR5/CCL5 interaction had a synergistic effect with chemotherapy and controlled cancer progression. Chemotherapy traditionally increased expression of CCR5, so blocking CCR5 is expected to reduce the levels of invasion and metastasis. Fourth, animal studies revealed a significant decrease in angiogenesis following administration of leronlimab. Lastly, we are currently studying the effect of leronlimab on macrophage repolarization due to macrophage plasticity.
Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Pre-Clinical Development
In late November 2018, we received FDA approval of our IND submission and subsequently initiated a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial for metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (“mTNBC”) patients. We reported that our pre-clinical research with leronlimab reduced the incidence of human breast cancer metastasis in a mouse xenograft model for cancer through six weeks with leronlimab by more than 98%. The temporal equivalency of this six-week study in mice may be up to six years in humans. In May 2019, the FDA granted Fast Track designation for leronlimab for use in combination with carboplatin to treat patients with CCR5-positive mTNBC.
Metastatic Trial for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Phase 1b/2 Trial
This trial evaluated the feasibility of leronlimab in combination with carboplatin in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC. This trial advanced from a Phase 1b/2 to Phase 2. The Phase 2 trial was a single arm study with 30 patients to test the hypothesis that the combination of carboplatin intravenously and maximum tolerated dose of leronlimab subcutaneously will increase progression free survival. The change in CTCs was evaluated every 21 days during treatment and will be used as an initial prognostic marker for efficacy. The first patient was treated in September 2019. Leronlimab, in combination with carboplatin was well-tolerated at all three dose levels of 350mg, 525mg, and 700mg. Leronlimab showed early signs of anti-tumor activity in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC.
 
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Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Compassionate Use Study
This was a single-arm, compassionate use study with 30 patients for leronlimab combined with a treatment of Physician’s Choice (“TPC”) in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC. Leronlimab was administered subcutaneously as a weekly dose of 350 mg until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Based on our success in the Phase 1b/2 mTNBC trial with 350 mg dose, we were able to transition the compassionate use patients to 525 mg dose. TPC is defined as one of the following single-agent chemotherapy drugs administrated according to local practice: eribulin, gemcitabine, capecitabine, paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel, vinorelbine, ixabepilone, or carboplatin. In this study, patients were evaluated for tumor response approximately every three (3) months or according to the institution’s standard practice by CT, PET/CT or MRI with contrast (per treating investigator’s discretion) using the same method as at baseline. This trial is no longer active.
Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors for CCR5+ Phase 2 Basket Trial
This was a single arm Phase 2 study of leronlimab in patients with CCR5+ locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Leronlimab was administered subcutaneously as a weekly dose of 350 mg and 525 mg until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Subjects participating in this study were also allowed to receive/continue standard-of-care chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this study, patients were evaluated for tumor response approximately every three months or according to the institution’s standard practice by CT, PET/CT or MRI with contrast using the same method as at baseline. This trial is no longer active.
Leronlimab and Other Immunological Applications
SARS-CoV 2 was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. The virus is highly contagious and has developed several variants. COVID-19 typically transmits person to person through respiratory droplets, commonly resulting from close personal contact. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals. For confirmed COVID-19 infections, symptoms have included fever, cough, and shortness of breath, amongst many others. The symptoms of COVID-19 may appear in as few as two days or as long as 14 days after exposure. Clinical manifestations in patients have ranged from non-symptomatic to severe and fatal.
Based upon analyses of leronlimab’s potential effect on the immune system and the results from over 60 Emergency Investigation New Drug (“EIND”) authorizations provided by the FDA, the Company conducted clinical trials in the United States for COVID-19 starting in fiscal 2020 ending in fiscal 2022. Additionally, the Company paused two clinical trials in Brazil which commenced during fiscal 2022. Further, the Company withdrew its COVID-19 IND with the FDA, and the FDA put the COVID-19 program on a full clinical hold in March 2022. If CytoDyn were to continue to pursue the COVID-19 indication, we believe that subgroup analyses from our previous trials may inform the design of future clinical trials investigating leronlimab for the treatment of COVID-19.
Patents, Proprietary Technology and Data Exclusivity
Protection of the Company’s intellectual property rights is important to our business. We may file patent applications in the U.S., Canada, China, Japan, European countries that are party to the European Patent Convention, and other countries on a selective basis, to protect inventions we consider to be important to the development of our business.
Generally, patents issued in the U.S. are effective for 20 years from the earliest asserted filing date. A U.S. patent, to be selected by us upon receipt of FDA regulatory approval, may be subject to up to a five-year patent term extension in certain instances. While the duration of foreign patents varies in accordance with the provisions of applicable local law, most countries provide for a patent term of 20 years measured from the application filing date and some may also allow for patent term extension to compensate for regulatory approval delay.
We pursue opportunities for seeking new meaningful patent protection on an ongoing basis. Absent patent protection, others may attempt to make and use the leronlimab antibody for uses not covered by later patent filings, such as attempts to produce and sell the leronlimab antibody as a research reagent and/or
 
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as a component for use in diagnostics. However, the formulation composition patent protection remains viable, and third parties face additional regulatory hurdles together with CytoDyn’s various method patents with respect to any contemplated attempts to commercialize leronlimab for therapeutic indications. We currently anticipate, absent patent term extension, that patent protection relating to the leronlimab antibody itself started to expire in 2023, the leronlimab concentrated protein formulation will start to expire in 2031, certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of HIV1 will start to expire on or before 2035, certain methods of using leronlimab for cancer indications if granted will start to expire in 2040, certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of COVID-19 will start to expire in 2040, and certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of NASH if granted will start to expire in 2043.
Patents do not enable us to preclude competitors from commercializing drugs in direct competition with our products that are not covered by granted and enforceable patent claims. Consequently, patents may not provide us with any meaningful competitive advantage. Refer to “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus for the related risks. We may also rely on data exclusivity, trade secrets, and proprietary know-how to develop and attempt to achieve a competitive position with our product candidates. We require our employees, consultants, and partners who have access to our proprietary information to sign confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property.
Separate from and in addition to the patent rights noted above, we expect that leronlimab will be subject to market and data exclusivity period, during which period no other applications referencing leronlimab will be approved by FDA. Accordingly, this period of regulatory exclusivity is expected to provide a term of protection against competing products shown to be biosimilar or interchangeable with leronlimab. Similar data exclusivity or data protection periods may be provided in other countries. We note that data exclusivity is not an extension of patent rights, and it does not prevent the introduction of generic versions of the innovative drug during the data exclusivity period, as long as the marketing approval of the generic version does not use or rely upon the innovator’s test data.
Patents and data exclusivity are different concepts, protect different subject matter, arise from different efforts, and have different legal effects over different time periods. Information with respect to our current patent portfolio as of May 31, 2023 is as follows:
Number of Patents
Number of Patent
Applications
U.S.
International
Expiration Dates(1)
U.S.
International
Leronlimab (PRO 140) product candidate(2)
2 16 2024-2032 1 3
Methods of treatment by indication (e.g., HIV-1; COVID-19; GvHD)(2)
3 9 2035-2040 1 10
Methods of treatment – Cancer, NASH
9 29
(1)
Patent term extensions and pending patent applications may extend periods of patent protection.
(2)
Leronlimab (PRO 140) patents and applications relate to the antibody and formulations.
Research, development and commercialization of a biopharmaceutical product often requires choosing between alternative development and optimization routes at various stages in the development process. Preferred routes depend upon current availability of financial resources, may also be affected by subsequent discoveries, test results and other factors, and therefore cannot be identified with certainty. There are numerous third-party patents in fields in which we work, and we may need to obtain licenses under patents of others to pursue a preferred development route of one or more of our product candidates. The need to obtain a license would decrease the ultimate value and profitability of an affected product. If we cannot negotiate such a license, we might have to pursue a less desirable development route or terminate the program altogether.
Government Regulation
The research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, packaging, labeling, storage, record-keeping, distribution, import, export, promotion, advertising, marketing, sale, and reimbursement of
 
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pharmaceutical products are extensively regulated by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries and jurisdictions, along with compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and other requirements, both pre-approval and post-approval, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. The regulatory requirements applicable to product development, approval and marketing are subject to change, and regulations and administrative guidance often are revised or reinterpreted by the agencies in ways that may have a significant impact on our business.
Licensure and Regulation of Biological Products in the United States
In the United States, the FDA regulates human drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDCA, and in the case of biological products, also under the Public Health Service Act, or the PHSA, and their implementing regulations. The failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements may result in FDA refusal to approve any pending applications or delays in development and may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions, such as issuance of warning letters, or the imposition of fines, civil penalties, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, and injunctions and/or civil or criminal prosecution brought by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Justice or other governmental entities.
The FDA must approve product candidates for therapeutic indications before they may be marketed in the United States. For biological products, such as our product candidate, leronlimab, the FDA must approve a BLA. An applicant seeking approval to market and distribute a new biologic in the United States generally must satisfactorily complete each of the following steps:

completion of pre-clinical laboratory tests, animal studies, and formulation studies according to good laboratory practices, or GLP, regulations, or other applicable regulations;

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated when certain changes are made;

approval by an independent institutional review board, (“IRB”), or ethics committee representing each clinical trial site before each clinical trial may be initiated;

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practices, or GCPs, and other clinical-trial related regulations to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;

preparation and submission to the FDA of a BLA requesting marketing approval for one or more proposed indications, including payment of application user fees;

review of the BLA by an FDA advisory committee, where applicable;

satisfactory completion of one or more FDA inspections of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the biologic is produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity;

satisfactory completion of any FDA audits of clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCPs and the integrity of the clinical data submitted in support of the BLA; and

FDA review and approval of the BLA, which may be subject to additional post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a REMS, and any post-approval studies required by the FDA.
Pre-clinical Studies
Before an applicant begins testing a product candidate with potential therapeutic value in humans, the product candidate enters the pre-clinical testing stage. Pre-clinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, formulation, and stability, as well as other studies to evaluate, among other things, the toxicity of the product candidate. The conduct of the pre-clinical tests and formulation of the compounds for testing must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations and standards.
 
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The results of the pre-clinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term pre-clinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, and long-term toxicity studies, may continue after the IND is submitted.
The IND and IRB Processes
An IND is an exemption from the premarket approval requirements of the FDCA allowing an unapproved product candidate to be shipped in interstate commerce for use in an investigational clinical trial. An IND must be in effect prior to interstate shipment and administration of any product candidate that is not the subject of an approved NDA or BLA. When submitting an IND to FDA, applicants must submit a protocol for each planned clinical trial, and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. The FDA requires a 30-day waiting period after the filing of each IND before clinical trials may begin. This waiting period is designed to allow the FDA to review the IND to determine whether human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. At any time during this 30-day period, the FDA may raise concerns or questions about the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND and impose a clinical hold or partial clinical hold. In this case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can begin.
At any time after the IND goes into effect, the FDA may also place a clinical hold or partial clinical hold on the IND or on any clinical trial that has commenced under the IND. A clinical hold is an order issued by the FDA to the sponsor to delay a proposed clinical investigation or to suspend an ongoing investigation. A partial clinical hold is a delay or suspension of only part of the clinical work requested under the IND. For example, a partial clinical hold might state that a specific protocol or part of a protocol may not proceed, while other parts of a protocol or other protocols may do so. No more than 30 days after the imposition of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, the FDA will provide the sponsor a written explanation of the basis for the hold. Following the issuance of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, a clinical investigation may only resume once the FDA has notified the sponsor that the investigation may proceed. The FDA will base that determination on information provided by the sponsor correcting the deficiencies previously cited or otherwise satisfying the FDA that the investigation can proceed or recommence.
For each foreign clinical study, a sponsor may choose, but is not required, to conduct it under an IND. When a foreign clinical study is conducted under an IND, all IND requirements must be met unless waived by the FDA. When a foreign clinical study is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor must ensure that the study complies with certain regulatory requirements of the FDA in order to use the study as support for an IND or application for marketing approval. Specifically, the studies must be conducted in accordance with GCP, including undergoing review and receiving approval by an independent ethics committee, or IEC, and seeking and receiving informed consent from subjects. The GCP requirements in the final rule encompass both ethical and data integrity standards for clinical studies. The FDA’s regulations are intended to help ensure the protection of human subjects enrolled in non-IND foreign clinical studies, as well as the quality and integrity of the resulting data.
In addition to the foregoing IND requirements, an IRB must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at each institution participating in the clinical trial, and the IRB must conduct continuing review and reapprove the study at least annually. The IRB, which must operate in compliance with FDA regulations, must review and approve, among other things, the study protocol and informed consent information to be provided to study subjects. An IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution, or an institution it represents, if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the product candidate has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.
Additionally, some trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, or DSMB. This group provides authorization as to whether or not a trial may move forward at designated checkpoints based on review of available data from the study, to which only the DSMB maintains access. Suspension or termination of development during any phase of a clinical trial can occur if the DSMB determines that the participants or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. A sponsor may suspend or terminate development for other reasons, including evolving business objectives and/or a competitive climate.
 
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Expanded Access
Expanded access, sometimes called “compassionate use,” is the use of investigational new drug products outside of clinical trials to treat patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases or conditions when there are no comparable or satisfactory alternative treatment options. The rules and regulations related to expanded access are intended to improve access to investigational drugs for patients who may benefit from investigational therapies. FDA regulations allow access to investigational drugs under an IND by the company or the treating physician for treatment purposes on a case-by-case basis for: individual patients (single-patient IND applications for treatment in emergency settings and non-emergency settings); intermediate-size patient populations; and larger populations for use of the drug under a treatment protocol or Treatment IND Application. FDA’s regulations also provide for emergency procedures if there is a situation that requires the patient to be treated before a written submission can be made.
When considering an IND application for expanded access to an investigational product with the purpose of treating a patient or a group of patients, the sponsor and treating physicians or investigators will determine suitability when all of the following criteria apply: patient(s) have a serious or immediately life-threatening disease or condition, and there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy to diagnose, monitor, or treat the disease or condition; the potential patient benefit justifies the potential risks of the treatment and the potential risks are not unreasonable in the context or condition to be treated; and the expanded use of the investigational drug for the requested treatment will not interfere with the initiation, conduct, or completion of clinical investigations that could support marketing approval of the product or otherwise compromise the potential development of the product.
There is no obligation for a sponsor to make its drug products available for expanded access; however, as required by the 21st Century Cures Act, or Cures Act, passed in 2016, a sponsor must make its policy regarding how it evaluates and responds to expanded access requests public and readily available. Sponsors are required to make such policies publicly available upon the earlier of initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 study; or 15 days after the investigational drug or biologic receives designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative medicine advanced therapy.
In addition, on May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a manufacturer to make its products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act, but the manufacturer must develop an internal policy and respond to patient requests according to that policy.
Human Clinical Trials in Support of an NDA or BLA
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product candidate to human subjects under the supervision of a qualified investigator in accordance with GCP requirements which include, among other things, the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing before they participate in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under written clinical trial protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated.
Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap or be combined. Additional studies may also be required after approval. As described in FDA’s regulations at 21 CFR 312.21, the three phases are as follows:
Phase 1 includes the initial introduction of an investigational new drug into humans. Phase 1 studies are typically closely monitored and may be conducted in patients or normal volunteer subjects. These studies are designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. During Phase 1, sufficient information about the drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects should be obtained to permit the design of well-controlled, scientifically valid, Phase 2 studies. The total number of subjects and patients included in Phase 1 studies varies with the drug but is generally in the range of 20 to 80.
 
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Phase 1 studies also include studies of drug metabolism, structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of action in humans, as well as studies in which investigational drugs are used as research tools to explore biological phenomena or disease processes.
Phase 2 includes the controlled clinical studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications in patients with the disease or condition under study and to determine the common short-term side effects and risks associated with the drug. Phase 2 studies are typically well controlled, closely monitored, and conducted in a relatively small number of patients, usually involving no more than several hundred subjects.
Phase 3 studies are expanded controlled and uncontrolled trials. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained and are intended to gather the additional information about effectiveness and safety that is needed to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and to provide an adequate basis for physician labeling. Phase 3 studies usually include from several hundred to several thousand subjects.
In some cases, the FDA may approve an NDA or BLA for a product candidate but require the sponsor to conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the product candidate’s safety and effectiveness after approval. Such post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of a larger number of patients in the intended treatment group and to further verify and describe clinical benefit in the case of products approved under FDA’s accelerated approval regulations. Failure to exhibit due diligence with regard to conducting Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of FDA approval for products.
Progress reports detailing the results of clinical trials must be submitted annually to the FDA. In addition, IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA for any of the following: serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions; findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk in humans exposed to the product; and any clinically important increase in the occurrence of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. Expedited reporting is required for unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reactions. Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or at all. The FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCP and the integrity of the clinical data submitted.
Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions
The FDA is authorized to expedite the development and review of new therapeutic products to address unmet need in the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition. A product development program may qualify for one or more of FDA’s expedited programs for serious conditions: fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, accelerated approval, and priority review designation.
Any product candidate submitted to the FDA for marketing, including under a Fast Track program, may be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as breakthrough therapy designation, priority review, and accelerated approval.

Fast Track Designation.   The sponsor of a product candidate may request the FDA to designate the product for a specific indication as a Fast Track product concurrent with or after the filing of the IND. Candidate products are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and nonclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast Track designation applies to the combination of the product candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. In addition to other benefits, such as the ability to have greater interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track application before the application is complete, a process known as rolling review.

Breakthrough therapy designation.   To qualify for the breakthrough therapy designation, product candidates must be intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence must indicate that such product candidates may demonstrate substantial improvement on one or more clinically significant endpoints over existing therapies. Features of
 
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breakthrough therapy designation include intensive guidance on an efficient development program, intensive involvement of senior managers and experienced staff on a proactive, collaborative and cross-disciplinary review, and rolling review.

Priority review.   A product candidate is eligible for priority review if it treats a serious condition and, if approved, it would be a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention compared to marketed products. In addition, specific statutory provisions provide for priority review for various types of applications. FDA aims to complete its review of priority review applications within six months as opposed to 10 months for standard review.

Accelerated approval.   FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product that treats a serious condition, generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies, and has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit, or on an intermediate clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity and prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug or biological product candidate receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well controlled post-marketing clinical trials. In addition, the FDA currently requires, as a condition for accelerated approval, pre-submission of promotional materials.
None of these expedited programs change the standards for approval but they may help expedite the development or approval process of product candidates.
Emergency Use Authorizations
The FDA has the authority to permit the use of unapproved medical products following a determination of a public health emergency (“PHE”) by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the “Secretary”) and a declaration by the Secretary that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of particular types of medical products to respond to the PHE. Once the Secretary has made the requisite determination and declaration, the FDA may issue Emergency Use Authorizations, or EUAs, for specific unapproved medical products if the following statutory criteria have been met: (1) the pathogen that is the subject of the PHE can cause a serious or life-threatening condition; (2) based on the totality of the scientific evidence available, it is reasonable to believe that (i) the product may be effective in preventing or treating such condition, and (ii) the known and potential benefits of the product outweigh the known and potential risks; and (3) there is no adequate, approved, and available alternative to the product.
If an EUA is granted, it generally will remain in effect until the Secretary’s declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of the type of products at issue or the product is approved under one of FDA’s traditional approval pathways. The EUA also may be revoked or revised for other reasons, including a finding that the criteria for its issuance are no longer met or other circumstances make a revision or revocation appropriate to protect public health or safety.
Review and Approval of BLAs
Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, along with information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, and controls and proposed labeling, are submitted to the FDA as part of a BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety, potency, and purity of the investigational product to the satisfaction of the FDA. The fee required for the submission of an NDA or BLA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, is substantial (for example, for FY2023 this application fee is approximately $3.24 million), and the sponsor of an approved BLA is also subject to an annual program fee, currently more than $390,000 per program. These fees are typically adjusted annually, but exemptions and waivers may be available under certain circumstances.
 
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The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all BLAs within 60 days of receipt and informs the sponsor by the 74th day after the FDA’s receipt of the submission whether an application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. In the event that the FDA determines that a BLA does not satisfy this standard, it will issue a Refuse to File, or RTF, determination to the applicant. Typically, an RTF for a BLA will be based on administrative incompleteness, such as clear omission of information or sections of required information; scientific incompleteness, such as omission of critical data, information, or analyses needed to evaluate safety, purity, and potency or provide adequate directions for use; or inadequate content, presentation, or organization of information such that substantive and meaningful review is precluded. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept a BLA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.
After the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review of the application. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA aims to review and act on 90 percent of standard submissions within ten months of the filing date and 90 percent of priority review submissions within six months of the filing date. The review process may be extended by the FDA for three additional months to consider new information or, in the case of a clarification provided by the applicant, to address an outstanding deficiency identified by the FDA following the original submission. Despite these review goals, it is not uncommon for FDA review of a BLA to extend beyond the PDUFA goal date.
Before approving a BLA, the FDA will typically conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with GMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may inspect the sponsor and one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCP requirements and the integrity of the clinical data submitted to the FDA.
Additionally, the FDA may refer a BLA, including applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee for review, evaluation, and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. Typically, an advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making final decisions on approval. The FDA also may require submission of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, if it determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the product outweigh its risks and to assure the safe use of the biological product. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the BLA must submit a proposed REMS and the FDA will not approve the BLA without a REMS.
The FDA reviews a BLA to determine, among other things, whether the product is safe, pure, and potent and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packed, or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, purity, and potency. The approval process is lengthy and often difficult, and the FDA may refuse to approve a BLA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied or may require additional clinical or other data and information. After evaluating the application and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendations, if any, and inspection reports of manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue either an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter, or CRL.
An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A CRL generally outlines the deficiencies in the submission and may require substantial additional testing or information in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The CRL may require additional clinical or other data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, pre-clinical studies, or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the BLA addressing all the deficiencies identified in the letter or withdraw the application. If and when those deficiencies have been addressed to the FDA’s satisfaction in a resubmission of the BLA, the FDA will issue an approval letter. The
 
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FDA has committed to reviewing and acting on 90 percent of such resubmissions in response to an issued CRL in either two or six months depending on the type of information included. Even with the submission of this additional information, however, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.
If a product receives marketing approval from the FDA, the approval is limited to the conditions of use (e.g., patient population, indication) described in the FDA-approved labeling. Further, depending on the specific risk(s) to be addressed, the FDA may require that contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval trials, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing trials or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.
Reference Product Exclusivity for Biological Products
With approval of a BLA, a biological product is licensed for marketing by FDA, and the product may be entitled to certain types of market and data exclusivity barring FDA from approving competing products for certain periods of time. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted in the United States and included the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or the BPCIA. The BPCIA amended the PHSA to create an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed biological reference product. To date, the FDA has approved several biosimilars, and in 2021, the FDA approved the first interchangeable biologic. The FDA has also issued several guidance documents outlining its approach to reviewing and approving biosimilars and interchangeable biologics.
Under the BPCIA, a manufacturer may submit an application for a product that is “biosimilar to” or “interchangeable with” a previously approved biological product or “reference product.” For the FDA to approve a biosimilar product, it must find that there are no clinically meaningful differences between the reference product and the proposed biosimilar product in terms of safety, purity, and potency. For the FDA to approve an interchangeable biological product, the agency must find that the biological product is biosimilar to the reference product, can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product, and “for a biological product that is administered more than once to an individual, the risk in terms of safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the biological product and the reference product is not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch.” Upon licensure by the FDA, an interchangeable biosimilar may be substituted for the reference product without the intervention of the healthcare provider who prescribed the reference product, although the substitutability of drug and biological products are determined at the state level.
The biosimilar applicant generally must demonstrate that the product is biosimilar based on data from analytical studies showing that the biosimilar product is highly similar to the reference product, data from animal studies (including toxicity) and data from one or more clinical studies to demonstrate safety, purity, and potency in one or more appropriate conditions of use for which the reference product is approved. The FDA, however, may waive any of these data requirements upon a finding that the data are “unnecessary.” In addition, the applicant must show that the biosimilar and reference products have the same mechanism of action for the approved conditions of use, route of administration, dosage and strength, and the production facility must meet standards designed to assure product safety, purity, and potency.
In the US, a reference biological product is granted 12 years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the product, and the first approved interchangeable biological product will be granted an exclusivity period of up to one year after it is first commercially marketed. The FDA will not accept an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product.
 
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The BPCIA is complex, and there have been various legislative proposals to change certain aspects of the BPCIA. As a result, the ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning of aspects of the BPCIA are subject to significant uncertainty.
Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity
Orphan drug designation in the United States is designed to encourage sponsors to develop products intended for treatment of rare diseases or conditions. In the United States, a rare disease or condition is statutorily defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or that affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the drug for the disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product in the United States.
Orphan drug designation may qualify a company for certain tax credits and market exclusivity for seven years following the date of the product’s marketing approval if granted by the FDA. An application for designation as an orphan product can be made any time prior to the filing of an application for approval to market the product. A product that has received orphan drug designation must go through the review and approval process like any other product.
A sponsor may request orphan drug designation of a previously unapproved product or new orphan indication for an already marketed product. In addition, a sponsor of a product that is otherwise the same drug as an already approved orphan drug may seek and obtain orphan drug designation for the subsequent product for the same rare disease or condition if it can present a plausible hypothesis that its product may be clinically superior to the first drug. More than one sponsor may receive orphan drug designation for the same drug for the same rare disease or condition, but each sponsor seeking orphan drug designation must file a complete request for designation.
If a product with orphan drug designation receives the first FDA approval for the rare disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product generally will receive orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity means that the FDA may not approve another sponsor’s marketing application for the same drug for the same disease or condition for seven years, except in certain limited circumstances.
The period of exclusivity begins on the date that the marketing application is approved by the FDA. Orphan drug exclusivity will not bar approval of another product under certain circumstances, including if the company with orphan drug exclusivity is not able to meet market demand or the subsequent product that is otherwise considered the same drug for the same disease or condition is shown to be clinically superior to the approved product based on greater efficacy or safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care. Additionally, the statute requires that a sponsor must demonstrate clinical superiority in order to receive orphan drug exclusivity for a product that is considered the same drug as a previously approved product for the same rare disease or condition.
Patent Term Restoration and Extension
In the United States, a patent claiming a new biological product, its method of use or its method of manufacture may be eligible for a limited patent term extension under the Hatch Waxman Act, which permits a patent extension of up to five years for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review. Assuming grant of the patent for which the extension is sought, the restoration period for a patent covering a product is typically one half the time between the effective date of the IND involving human beings and the submission date of the BLA, plus the time between the submission date of the BLA and the ultimate approval date. Patent term restoration cannot be used to extend the remaining term of a patent past a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date in the United States. Only one patent applicable to an approved product is eligible for the extension, and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent for which extension is sought. A patent that covers multiple products for which approval is sought can only be extended in connection with one of the approvals. The USPTO reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension in consultation with the FDA.
Post-approval Requirements
Following approval of a new product, the manufacturer and the approved product are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, governing, among other things, monitoring and
 
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recordkeeping activities, reporting of adverse experiences with the product and product problems to the FDA, product sampling and distribution, manufacturing, and promotion and advertising. Although physicians may prescribe legally available products for unapproved uses or patient populations (i.e., “off-label uses”), manufacturers may not market or promote such uses. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.
Specifically, if a company is found to have promoted off-label uses, it may become subject to adverse public relations and administrative and judicial enforcement by the FDA, the Department of Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities. This could subject a company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the way a company promotes or distributes drug products. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.
Further, if there are any modifications to the product, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new BLA or a BLA supplement, which may require the applicant to develop additional data or conduct additional pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a REMS to assure the safe use of the product, which may require substantial commitment of resources post-approval to ensure compliance. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription, or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.
In addition, FDA regulations require that biological products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMPs. The cGMP regulations include requirements relating to organization of personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and drug product containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports, and returned or salvaged products. The manufacturing facilities for our product candidates must meet cGMP requirements and satisfy the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities’ satisfaction before any product is approved and our commercial products can be manufactured.
We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to produce clinical (and, in the future, commercial) supplies of our product candidate in accordance with cGMP regulations. These manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations, including requirements for quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation, and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs or biologics are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. Inspections by the FDA and other regulatory agencies may identify compliance issues at facilities that may disrupt production or distribution or require substantial resources to correct. In addition, the discovery of conditions that violate these rules, including failure to conform to cGMPs, could result in enforcement actions, and the discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved BLA, including voluntary recall and regulatory sanctions as described below.
The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market clinical trials
 
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requirement to assess new safety risks or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;

safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases, or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about a product;

mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and issuance of corrective information;

fines, warning letters, untitled letters or other enforcement-related letters, or clinical holds on post-approval clinical trials;

refusal of the FDA to approve pending NDAs/BLAs or supplements to approved NDAs/BLAs, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;

product seizure or detention or refusal to permit the import or export of products;

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; and

consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment, or exclusion from federal health care programs; or mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information.
In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which regulates the distribution of samples at the federal level and sets minimum standards for the registration and regulation of drug distributors by the states. Additionally, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act, or DSCSA, imposes requirements related to identifying and tracing certain prescription products distributed in the United States, including most biological products.
Other U.S. Healthcare Laws and Regulations
In the United States, biopharmaceutical manufacturers and their products are subject to extensive regulation at the federal and state level, such as laws intended to prevent fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. These laws, some of which apply only to approved products, include:

federal false claims, false statements, and civil monetary penalties laws prohibiting, among other things, any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment of government funds or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid;

federal healthcare program anti-kickback law, which prohibits, among other things, persons from offering, soliciting, receiving, or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchasing or ordering of, a good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which, in addition to privacy protections applicable to healthcare providers and other entities, prohibits executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

FDCA, which among other things, strictly regulates marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing such products prior to approval or for off-label use, and regulates the distribution of samples;

federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under government healthcare programs;

federal transparency law, which requires pharmaceutical companies to report certain payments to healthcare providers;

state laws and regulations analogous to the above; and
 
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laws and regulations prohibiting bribery and corruption such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), which, among other things, prohibits U.S. companies and their employees and agents from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to foreign government officials, employees of public international organizations or foreign government-owned or affiliated entities, candidates for foreign public office, and foreign political parties or officials thereof.
Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including, in some instances, exclusion from participation in federal and state health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Ensuring compliance is time consuming and costly.
Similar healthcare laws and regulations exist in the European Union (the “EU”) and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers and laws governing the privacy and security of personal information.
U.S. Privacy Law
In the U.S., there are numerous state and federal laws and regulations governing the security and privacy of personal information. Additionally, state and federal regulators have begun to pay more attention to companies’ data processing activities.
At the state level, laws require companies to safeguard personal information and take action in the event of a data breach (e.g., notifying governmental authorities and data subjects). State attorneys general have been active in using their consumer protection authority to investigate companies’ data security practices. A number of states have passed laws governing data privacy and many others have similar legislation under consideration. Although many of these laws contain exceptions for certain health data, these exceptions are not comprehensive. All of these laws give rights to residents in their states and require businesses to take certain actions with respect to those rights (similar to the General Data Protection Regulation in effect in the EU, but with notable differences).
At the federal level, the Federal Trade Commission has been active in using its Section 5 authority to bring enforcement actions against companies for deceptive or unreasonable data processing activities.
Registrational Clinical Trials Process
Described below is the traditional registrational drug development track.
Phase 1 includes the initial introduction of an investigational new drug or biologic into humans. These studies are closely monitored and may be conducted in patients but are usually conducted in a small number of healthy volunteer patients. These studies are designed to determine the metabolic and pharmacologic actions of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. During Phase 1, sufficient information about the investigational product’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects are obtained to permit the design of well-controlled, scientifically valid, Phase 2 studies. Phase 1 studies of PRO 140 were conducted and completed by or on behalf of Progenics by certain principal investigators prior to our acquisition of PRO 140.
Phase 2 includes the early controlled clinical studies conducted to obtain some preliminary data on the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications in patients with the disease or condition. This phase of testing also helps determine the common short-term side effects and risks associated with the drug. Phase 2 studies are typically well-controlled, closely monitored, and conducted in a relatively small number of patients, typically no more than several hundred people. In some cases, depending upon the need for a new drug, a particular drug candidate may be licensed for sale in interstate commerce after a “pivotal” Phase 2 trial. Phase 2 is often broken into Phase 2a, which can be used to refer to “pilot trials,” or more limited trials evaluating exposure response in patients, and Phase 2b trials that are designed to evaluate dosing efficacy and ranges.
Phase 3 studies are expanded controlled clinical studies. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained in Phase 2 and are intended to gather the additional information about effectiveness and safety that is needed to evaluate the overall benefit/risk relationship of the
 
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drug. Phase 3 studies also provide an adequate basis for extrapolating the results to the general population and transmitting that information in the physician labeling. Phase 3 studies usually involve significantly larger groups of patients, and considerable additional expense. We were required to pay significant fees to third parties upon the first patient dosing in a Phase 3 trial of leronlimab, and we may be required to make additional fee payments to third parties upon the completion of additional milestones. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — PRO 140 Acquisition and Licensing Arrangements in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.
Manufacturing
We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities to produce leronlimab or perform CMC related activities. As such, we must depend on third-party manufacturing organizations and suppliers for all of our CMC activities. We continue to explore alternative CMC partners and sources to obtain access to adequate resources to support our CMC efforts for leronlimab in a cost-efficient manner.
We engaged Samsung Biologics and AGC Biologics, two global contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), to initiate the scale-up to commercial batch quantities of product and develop the necessary controls and specifications to manufacture product on a consistent and reproducible manner. We have also contracted with suitable CMOs to fill, finish, label, and package product into the final commercial package for commercial use. In order to commercialize product, this scaled-up material will need to be validated under best practices and demonstrated to meet approved specifications on an ongoing basis. GMP material will be produced as needed to support clinical trials for all therapeutic indications and until commercial product is approved by the FDA. We will rely on CMOs for all of our developmental and commercial needs. We currently have sufficient drug product to support the Company’s anticipated development activities.
As discussed in more detail above, the FDA issued a Refusal to File letter regarding the Company’s BLA submission for leronlimab and placed a partial clinical hold on the Company’s HIV program in the United States. All manufacturing and CMC activities, which are not necessary to maintain the shelf-lives of the manufactured leronlimab, have been paused until the Company addresses deficiencies to allow the clinical hold to be removed.
Also refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
Research and Development Costs
The Company’s research and development expenses totaled approximately $2.6 million and $27.0 million for the fiscal years ended May 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
Properties
We lease the space at which our principal executive offices are located at a monthly cost of approximately $15,200. We do not own or lease any other properties.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
As of August 31, 2023, we had 12 employees, as well as several independent consultants assisting us with the Company’s regulatory, quality, and medical matters. Our research and development team is geographically dispersed throughout the United States. CytoDyn is committed to pay equity regardless of gender or race/ethnicity. We invest in our workforce by offering competitive salaries and benefits. We may award stock options or other stock-based awards to selected employees under our equity incentive plan. We also offer various benefits to all eligible employees, including health care coverage and a 401(k) plan. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to identify or hire and retain additional employees or consultants on acceptable terms in the future.
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the other sections of this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes beginning on page F-1 of this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this prospectus, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” You should review the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.
Overview
The Company is a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development and potential commercialization of its product candidate, leronlimab, which is being studied for NASH, NASH-HIV, solid tumors in oncology, and other HIV indications. Our current business strategy is to seek the removal of the partial clinical hold imposed by the FDA in March 2022. In October 2022, the Company voluntarily withdrew its BLA submission for leronlimab as a combination therapy for highly treatment experienced HIV patients, due to management’s conclusion that a significant risk existed that the BLA would not receive FDA approval due to the inadequate process and performance around the monitoring and oversight of the clinical data from its clinical trials by its former CRO.
As further discussed in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Inventories, and Note 3, Inventories, net in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus, the Company previously capitalized procured or produced pre-launch inventories in preparation for product launches. The Company has written off $99.2 million in previously capitalized pre-launch inventories. Although these inventories have been written off from an accounting perspective, they may still have clinical use.
The Company’s strategy and efforts are currently primarily directed toward obtaining the removal of the partial clinical hold on its HIV program, preparation for and development of a Phase 2b/3 NASH clinical trial protocol, research and development of longer-acting molecules including for the treatment and/or prevention of HIV, maintenance and testing of clinical drug product, and resolving legal and regulatory matters. See Our Business in this prospectus for additional information regarding these initiatives.
Fiscal 2023 Overview
Actions taken by the Company during the fiscal year 2023 included:

Hiring of a biotech veteran, Cyrus Arman, Ph.D., as the Company’s new President in July 2022, along with other leadership transitions; Dr. Arman became the Company’s Senior Vice President, Business Operations on July 9, 2023, following a brief medical leave of absence;

Strengthening the Company’s Board of Directors through the addition of two highly qualified and experienced members;

Withdrawing the BLA previously submitted to the FDA for the HIV multi-drug resistant population;

Revamping our clinical strategy to focus on NASH, oncology, and development of a modified, longer-acting molecule, potentially for use in the HIV population among other potential applications;

Submitting our clinical response(s) to the FDA and continuing our dialogue with FDA to clarify what they are now additionally seeking to lift the clinical hold;

Entering into a partnership with a third-party generative artificial intelligence drug discovery and development company to develop a long-acting modified therapeutic;

Closing multiple financing transactions to provide funding for the Company’s business operations and initiatives.
Additional information regarding corporate and clinical developments is included in Our Business in this prospectus.
 
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Results of operations for the fiscal years ended May 31, 2023 and 2022
Fluctuations in Operating Results
The Company’s operating results may fluctuate significantly depending on the outcomes, number and timing of pre-clinical and clinical studies, patient enrollment and/or completion rates in the studies, and their related effect on research and development expenses, regulatory and compliance activities, activities related to seeking removal of the partial clinical hold and FDA approval of our drug product, general and administrative expenses, professional fees, and legal and regulatory proceedings and related consequences. We require a significant amount of capital to continue to operate; therefore, we regularly conduct financing offerings to raise capital, which may result in various forms of non-cash interest expense or other expenses. Additionally, we periodically seek to negotiate settlement of debt payment obligations in exchange for equity securities of the Company and enter into warrant exchanges or modifications that may result in non-cash charges. Our ability to continue to fund operations will depend on our ability to raise additional funds. Refer to Risk Factors, Liquidity and Capital Resources, and Going Concern sections included in this prospectus.
The results of operations were as follows for the periods presented:
Fiscal years ended May 31,
Change
(in thousands, except for per share data)
2023
2022
$
%
Revenue
$ $ 266 $ (266) (100)%
Cost of goods sold
53 (53) (100)
Gross profit
213 (213) (100)
Operating expenses:
General and administrative
17,136 44,303 (27,167) (61)
Research and development
2,632 27,043 (24,411) (90)
Amortization and depreciation
175 781 (606) (78)
Inventory charge
20,633 73,490 (52,857) (72)
Total operating expenses
40,576 145,617 (105,041) (72)
Operating loss
(40,576) (145,404) 104,828 (72)
Interest and other expenses:
Interest on convertible notes
(4,624) (5,417) 793 (15)
Amortization of discount on convertible notes
(2,126) (2,958) 832 (28)
Amortization of debt issuance costs
(9,747) (87) (9,660) 11,103
Loss on induced conversion
(5,312) (37,381) 32,069 (86)
Finance charges
(8,689) (9,029) 340 (4)
Inducement interest expense
(6,691) 6,691 (100)
Legal settlement
(3,853) 3,853 (100)
Loss on derivatives
8,750 8,750 100
Total interest and other expenses
(39,248) (65,416) 26,168 (40)
Loss before income taxes
(79,824) (210,820) 130,996 (62)
Income tax benefit
Net loss
$ (79,824) $ (210,820) $ 130,996 (62)%
Basic and diluted:
Weighted average common shares outstanding
836,528 676,900 159,628.00 24
Loss per share
$ (0.10) $ (0.31) $ 0.21 (67)%
 
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Product revenue, Cost of goods sold (“COGS”) and Gross margin
We had no revenue in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 as compared to approximately $266 thousand in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2022. Revenue was related to the fulfillment of orders under a Compassionate Special Permit (“CSP”) in the Philippines for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Sales were made under the April 2021 exclusive supply and distribution agreement granting Chiral the right to distribute and sell up to 200,000 vials of leronlimab through April 15, 2022. At the time of the sales, FDA approval had not been received for leronlimab and the product sold was previously expensed as research and development expense due to its being manufactured prior to the commencement of the manufacturing of commercial grade pre-launch inventories. Therefore, COGS consists only of the costs of packaging and shipping of the vials, including related customs and duties.
General and administrative expenses
G&A expenses consisted of the following:
Fiscal years ended May 31,
Change
(in thousands)
2023
2022
$
%
Salaries, benefits, and other compensation
$ 4,114 $ 6,336 $ (2,222) (35)%
Stock-based compensation
4,222 6,263 (2,041) (33)
Legal fees
2,805 21,993 (19,188) (87)
Directors and officers liability insurance
2,399 4,512 (2,113) (47)
Other
3,596 5,199 (1,603) (31)
Total general and administrative
$ 17,136 $ 44,303 $ (27,167) (61)%
The decreases in G&A expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year, were due to reductions in all categories. The decreases in legal fees were due to lower legal fees related to the SEC and DOJ investigations, Pestell employment dispute (which was resolved in May 2022), and Amarex dispute, the absence of legal fees related to the prior year proxy contest and related lawsuits, and the payment of certain legal fees by the Company’s insurance carriers. The decreases in salaries, benefits, and other compensation and stock-based compensation were the result of decreased headcount, cash compensation, and option forfeitures during the year. The decrease in directors and officers liability insurance was due to less insurance premiums due to a lower market capitalization. The decreases in other expenses were the result of a reduction in expenses related to the prior year proxy contest and recruiting and contract services, partially offset by an increase in auditor fees.
Research and development expenses
R&D expenses consisted of the following:
Fiscal years ended May 31,
Change
(in thousands)
2023
2022
$
%
Clinical
$ (92) $ 20,347 $ (20,439) (100)%
Non-clinical
136 986 (850) (86)
CMC
1,687 4,995 (3,308) (66)
License and patent fees
901 715 186 26
Total research and development
$ 2,632 $ 27,043 $ (24,411) (90)%
The decreases in R&D expenses in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year, were primarily the result of clinical trials related to COVID-19, NASH, HIV extension, and oncology studies being completed, paused, or closed that had been active in the prior year, as well as decreased activity related to the BLA resubmission, partially offset by increased costs related to activities focused on addressing the HIV program partial clinical hold. The credit balance in clinical expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, is due to vendor credit memos issued related to the paused Brazilian COVID-19 trials. The
 
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decrease in non-clinical expenses from the same periods in the prior year was the result of decreased activity from non-clinical studies related to the BLA submission. The decrease in CMC-related expenses from the prior year was the result of decreased activity related to CMC manufacturing.
The future trend of our R&D expenses is dependent on the timing of the FDA’s potential lifting of the clinical hold and any future clinical trials, our decision-making and timing of the selection of which indications on which to focus our future efforts toward the clinical development and study of leronlimab, which may include the treatment of NASH, NASH-HIV, oncology, and other HIV-related indications, and the timing and outcomes of such efforts.
Inventory charge
The decrease in the inventory charge for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year was attributable to the majority of inventory being written-off in the prior year. The remaining inventory was written-off in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 due to pre-launch inventories no longer qualifying for inventory capitalization due to the withdrawal of the BLA submission. See Note 3, Inventories, net in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
Interest and other expense
Interest and other expenses consisted of the following:
Fiscal years ended May 31,
Change
(in thousands)
2023
2022
$
%
Interest on convertible notes payable
$ 4,624 $ 5,417 $ (793) (15)%
Amortization of discount on convertible notes
2,126 2,958 (832) (28)
Amortization of debt issuance costs
9,747 87 9,660 11,103
Loss on induced conversion
5,312 37,381 (32,069) (86)
Finance charges
8,689 9,029 (340) (4)
Inducement interest expense
6,691 (6,691) (100)
Legal settlement
3,853 (3,853) (100)
Loss on derivatives
8,750 8,750 100
Total interest and other expenses
$ 39,248 $ 65,416 $ (26,168) (40)%
The decreases in interest and other expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the same period in the prior year were primarily due to a decrease in non-cash loss on induced conversion, inducement interest expense, and legal settlement, partially offset by an increase in amortization of debt issuance costs and loss on derivatives. The decreased non-cash loss on induced conversions resulted from the Company settling less outstanding convertible debt with common stock during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The decrease in inducement interest expense is the result of it now being recorded in stockholders’ equity as a result of the adoption of ASU No. 2021-04. Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information. The decrease in legal settlement expense is due to no legal settlements being finalized in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, resulting in zero expense. The increase of debt issuance cost was primarily attributable to recognition of the issuance costs of the private placement of common stock and warrants through a placement agent in the current fiscal year as an expense. See Note 7, Equity and Warrants — Private placement of common stock and warrants through placement agent in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information. The increase in loss on derivatives was primarily attributable to the change in the fair value of liability-classified warrants issued in connection with a Surety Backstop Agreement relating to the Amarex litigation proceeding and placement agent warrants issued in connection with an offering for which the related warrants subsequently became equity classified upon stockholder approval of an increase in authorized shares on August 31, 2022.
 
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of May 31, 2023, we had a total of approximately $2.5 million in cash, $6.5 million in restricted cash, and approximately $119.8 million in short-term liabilities consisting primarily of approximately $45.0 million representing the principal of and accrued interest on convertible notes payable, net of unamortized debt discount, and approximately $69.4 million in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and compensation. We will continue to incur operating losses and the Company will require a significant amount of additional capital in the future as we continue to seek approval to commercialize leronlimab. Despite the Company’s negative working capital position, vendor relations remain relatively accommodative given liquidity constraints. We cannot be certain, however, that future funding will be available to us when needed on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We sell securities and incur debt when the terms of such agreements are deemed favorable to both parties under then current circumstances and as necessary to fund our current and projected cash needs.
Cash
The Company’s cash and restricted cash position of approximately $2.5 million and $6.5 million, respectively, at May 31, 2023, decreased by approximately $1.7 million and increased by $6.5 million, respectively, compared to the cash balance of approximately $4.2 million and no restricted cash at May 31, 2022. During the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, we funded our operations by obtaining a total of approximately $29.9 million of net cash proceeds primarily funded through the sales of common stock and warrants.
Summary of cash flows and changes between the periods presented is as follows:
Fiscal years ended May 31,
Change
$
(in thousands)
2023
2022
Net cash (used in) provided by:
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (25,110) $ (77,723) $ 52,613
Net cash provided by/ used in investing activities
$ $ $
Net cash provided by financing activities
$ 29,927 $ 48,011 $ (18,084)
Cash used in operating activities
Net cash used in operating activities totaled approximately $25.1 million during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, representing an improvement of approximately $52.6 million compared to the prior year. The decrease in the net amount of cash used was primarily attributable to decreased G&A and R&D expenses, and working capital fluctuations, all of which are highly variable, and which led to a significant decrease in our net loss. Refer to General and administrative expenses and Research and development expenses above for further discussion.
Cash provided by financing activities
Net cash provided by financing activities totaled approximately $29.9 million, a decrease of approximately $18.1 million compared to the prior year. The decrease in net cash provided was primarily the result of raising less funds from private placements of common stock and warrants, and a decrease in cash received from warrant transactions and exercises.
Pre-launch inventories
The Company previously capitalized pre-launch inventories that were subsequently charged-off in October 2022 for GAAP accounting purposes due to no longer qualifying for pre-launch inventory capitalization resulting from the withdrawal of the BLA submission. Work-in-progress and finished drug product inventories continue to be physically maintained, can be used for clinical trials, and can be sold commercially upon regulatory approval if the shelf-lives can be extended as a result of the performance of on-going stability tests. Raw materials continue to be maintained so that they can be used in the future if needed.
 
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During the first quarter of fiscal year 2023, the Company reviewed purchase commitments made by its manufacturing partner, Samsung, under the master agreement between the Company and Samsung, and its vendors for specialized raw materials for which the Company made a prepayment in the amount of $2.7 million in the third quarter of fiscal year 2022, which were recorded as prepaid expenses in the consolidated financial statements as of May 31, 2022. As discussed in Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus, the Company and Samsung remain in ongoing discussions about, among other things, deferring the unfulfilled commitments. These additional specialized raw materials are estimated to have shelf-lives ranging from 2023 to 2026. The entire amount of approximately $2.7 million was charged-off as of August 31, 2022.
In October 2022, the Company voluntarily withdrew its BLA submission after concluding that a significant risk existed that the BLA would not receive FDA approval due to the inadequate process and performance by the Company’s former CRO around the monitoring and oversight of the clinical data from its trials. Following this decision, none of the Company’s inventories qualified for capitalization as pre-launch inventories. For the three months ended November 30, 2022, the Company charged-off the remaining raw material resin and work-in-progress bulk product inventories of approximately $16.3 million and $1.7 million, respectively.
The table below summarizes previously capitalized pre-launch inventories that were subsequently charged-off for GAAP accounting purposes due to no longer qualifying for pre-launch inventory capitalization due to the withdrawal of the BLA submission and estimated expiration based on remaining shelf life.
Raw Materials
Work-in-progress
(in thousands, Expiration
period ending May 31,)
Remaining
shelf-life (mos)
Specialized
Resins
Other
Total Raw
Materials
Bulk drug
product
Finished drug
product
Total
inventories
2024
0 to 12 $ 5,332 $ 16,264 $ 1,589 $ 23,185 $ $ $ 23,185
2025
13 to 24 2,099 2,099 1,661 29,142 32,902
2026
25 to 36 728 728 32,343 33,071
2027
37 to 48 1,420 1,420 1,420
Thereafter
49 or more
Inventories, gross
9,579 16,264 1,589 27,432 1,661 61,485 90,578
Inventory charge
(9,579) (16,264) (1,589) (27,432) (1,661) (61,485) (90,578)
Inventories, net
$ $ $ $ $ $ $
Convertible debt
April 2, 2021 Convertible Note
On April 2, 2021, we issued a convertible note with a principal amount of $28.5 million resulting in net cash proceeds of $25.0 million, after $3.4 million of debt discount and $0.1 million of offering costs. The note accrues interest daily at a rate of 10% per annum, contains a stated conversion price of $10.00 per share, and matures in April 2025. The April 2, 2021 Note required monthly debt reduction payments of $7.5 million for the six months beginning in May 2021, which could also be satisfied by payments on other notes held by the noteholder or its affiliates. Beginning six months after the issuance date, the noteholder may request monthly redemptions of up to $3.5 million. As of May 31, 2023, the outstanding balance of the April 2, 2021 Note, including accrued interest, was approximately $9.9 million.
April 23, 2021 Convertible Note
On April 23, 2021, we issued a convertible note with a principal amount of $28.5 million resulting in net cash proceeds of $25.0 million, after $3.4 million of debt discount and $0.1 million of offering costs. The note accrues interest daily at a rate of 10% per annum, contains a stated conversion price of $10.00 per share, and matures in April 2025. Beginning six months after the issuance date, the noteholder may
 
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request monthly redemptions of up to $7.0 million. As of May 31, 2023, the outstanding balance of the April 23, 2021 Note, including accrued interest, was approximately $36.2 million.
Notes Issued through Placement Agent
During April and May 2023, we issued notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1.0 million, resulting in net cash proceeds of approximately $0.9 million after approximately $0.1 million of offering costs. The notes accrued interest daily at a rate of 6% per annum, contained a default provision allowing the investors to convert unpaid principal and interest into shares of the Company’s common stock at a 25% discount at the date of conversion, and mature in December 2024. As of May 31, 2023, the outstanding balance of the notes was approximately $1.0 million. The entire principal balance of and accrued interest on the notes were converted into shares of common stock in August 2023, in addition to the notes that were issued in the first quarter of fiscal year 2024.
Refer to Note 6, Convertible Instruments and Accrued Interest and Note 13, Subsequent Events in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
Common stock
We have 1,350.0 million authorized shares of common stock. The table below summarizes intended uses of common stock.
(in millions)
As of
May 31, 2023
Issuable upon:
Warrants exercise
259.9
Convertible preferred stock and undeclared dividends conversion
34.1
Outstanding stock options exercise or vesting of outstanding RSUs and PSUs
21.1
Reserved for issuance pursuant to future stock-based awards under equity incentive
plan
19.7
Reserved and issuable upon conversion of outstanding convertible notes
12.0
Reserved for issuance of warrants to investors
1.0
Reserved for issuance of warrants to placement agents
0.3
Total shares reserved for future uses
348.1
Common stock outstanding
918.6
As a result, as of May 31, 2023, we had approximately 83.3 million unreserved authorized shares of common stock available for issuance. At the Company’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held on November 9, 2023, our stockholders will be asked to vote on an amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation to provide for an increase in the total number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance from 1,350,000,000 shares to 1,750,000,000 shares. Our ability to continue to fund our operations depends on our ability to raise capital. The funding necessary for our operations may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we deplete our cash reserves, we may have to discontinue our operations and liquidate our assets. In extreme cases, we could be forced to file for bankruptcy protection, discontinue operations or liquidate assets.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of May 31, 2023, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have, or are reasonably likely to have, a material effect on our current or future financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, or capital resources.
Contractual Obligations
See Note 6, Convertible Instruments and Accrued Interest, Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies, and Note 13, Subsequent Events in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus.
 
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Legal Proceedings
The Company is a party to various legal proceedings described in Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus. The Company recognizes accruals for such proceedings to the extent a loss is determined to be both probable and reasonably estimable. The best estimate of a loss within a possible range is accrued; however, if no estimate in the range is more probable than another, then the minimum amount in the range is accrued. If it is determined that a material loss is not probable but reasonably possible and the loss or range of loss can be estimated, the possible loss is disclosed.
It is not possible to determine the outcome of these proceedings, including the defense and other litigation-related costs and expenses that may be incurred by the Company, as the outcomes of legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and the outcomes could differ significantly from recognized accruals. Therefore, it is possible that the ultimate outcome of any proceeding, if in excess of a recognized accrual, or if no accrual has been made, could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for further discussion of legal proceedings.
Regulatory Matters
Voluntary Withdrawal of HIV BLA Submission
In July 2020, the Company received a Refusal to File letter from the FDA regarding its BLA submission for leronlimab as a combination therapy with HAART for highly treatment-experienced HIV patients. In October 2022, the Company voluntarily withdrew its BLA submission due to management’s conclusion that a severe risk of the BLA not receiving approval by the FDA existed due to the Company’s former CRO’s inadequate process and performance around the monitoring and oversight of the clinical data. For additional information, refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus.
FDA warning letter re COVID-19 misbranding of investigational drug
In January 2022, the Company received a Warning Letter from the FDA alleging that its former CEO had made references in a video interview to COVID-19 and leronlimab in a promotional context to the effect that leronlimab, an investigational new drug, is safe and effective for the purpose for which it is being investigated or otherwise promoted the drug. The FDA warned the Company that leronlimab has not been approved or authorized by the FDA, its safety and effectiveness have not yet been established, and the related clinical trial data was mischaracterized in the video. The FDA further alleged that the video misbranded leronlimab under section 502(f)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, and in violation of section 301(a) of the same, as the claims in the video made representations in a promotional context regarding the safety and efficacy of an investigational new drug that has not been approved or authorized by the FDA. CytoDyn has completed all the corrective steps requested by the FDA. On September 26, 2022, CytoDyn sent a letter to the FDA informing the FDA that it had completed all corrective steps. On April 27, 2023, the FDA notified the Company that it had concluded its review of the Company’s corrective actions and concluded that violations have been appropriately addressed by the Company.
FDA HIV partial clinical hold and COVID-19 full clinical hold letters
In March 2022, the FDA placed a partial clinical hold on the Company’s HIV program and a full clinical hold on its COVID-19 program in the United States. The Company was not enrolling any new patients in the trials placed on hold in the United States. Under the full clinical hold on the COVID-19 program, no new clinical studies may be initiated for the COVID-19 indication until the clinical hold is resolved. The Company has made a business decision not to pursue the use of leronlimab in COVID-19 patients, has no plans for further trials under the COVID-19 indication and has withdrawn the IND for COVID-19. Should the opportunity arise, the Company may explore potential non-dilutive clinical development options. CytoDyn is working diligently with the FDA to resolve the partial clinical hold for HIV as soon as possible, as no new clinical studies can be initiated or resumed for the HIV indication until the partial clinical hold is resolved.
 
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During the third quarter ended February 28, 2023, the Company submitted the documents requested by the FDA in its March 2022 clinical hold letter. Subsequently, the FDA responded through written communication to the Company, requesting additional information and clarification regarding an item that was previously submitted, the benefit-risk assessment for the HIV population, and made a supplemental request that the Company submit an IND amendment containing the proposed general investigational plan for the coming year, appropriate protocols, and any additional information supporting the proposed investigation under the HIV program IND.
In March 2023, the Company responded to and submitted to the FDA the additional information and clarifications requested for the items previously requested. The FDA responded with further written communication requesting information relating to the benefit-risk assessment, as well as requesting the submission of a new protocol for the HIV indication. At the end of March 2023, the Company and the FDA held an informal meeting in which the FDA addressed certain clarifying questions with respect to the clinical hold submission and further information requests made by the FDA. As of the date of this filing, the Company has submitted the following to the FDA in connection with resolving the clinical hold: an aggregate analysis of cardiovascular events across all leronlimab clinical programs, a Safety Surveillance Plan, an aggregate safety data analysis, an updated Investigator’s Brochure, annual reports, a benefit-risk assessment, and a general investigational plan. The Company is currently working on a supplemental submission to address items discussed with the FDA during the informal meeting.
Going Concern
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. As presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company had losses for all periods presented. The Company incurred a net loss of $79.8 million for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, and had an accumulated deficit of $841.7 million as of May 31, 2023. These factors, among several others, raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of assets and liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.
The Company has had limited to no activities that produced revenue in the periods presented and has operated at a loss since inception. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain a significant amount of additional operating capital to continue to fund operations and pay its liabilities and commitments, its research into multiple indications for and development of its product candidate, to obtain FDA approval of its product candidate for use in treating one or more indications, to outsource manufacturing of its product, and ultimately to attain profitability. We intend to seek additional funding through equity or debt offerings, licensing agreements, supply and distribution agreements, and strategic alliances to implement our business plan. There are no assurances, however, that we will be successful in these endeavors. If we are not able to raise capital on a timely basis on favorable terms, if at all, we may need to significantly change or scale back operations, including seeking removal of the FDA’s clinical hold, pursuing other development and commercialization initiatives, and obtaining adequate funding to cover the costs of the legal proceedings in which we are involved, all of which individually or in combination could materially impede our ability to achieve profitability. The Company’s failure to raise additional capital could also affect our relationships with key vendors, including Samsung, disrupting our ability to timely execute our business plan. In extreme cases, the Company could be forced to file for bankruptcy protection, discontinue operations, or liquidate assets.
Since inception, the Company has financed its activities principally from the public and private sale of equity securities, as well as with proceeds from issuance of convertible notes and related party notes payable. The Company intends to finance its future operating activities and its working capital needs largely from the sale of equity and debt securities. As of August 31, 2023, the Company had only approximately 35.7 million shares of common stock, authorized for issuance under its certificate of incorporation, as amended, and available for future uses. The sale of equity and convertible debt securities to raise additional capital is likely to result in dilution to stockholders and those securities may have rights senior to the common stock. If the Company raises funds through the issuance of additional preferred stock, convertible debt securities, or other debt or equity financing, the related transaction documents could contain covenants restricting its operations.
 
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In April 2021, the Company entered into long-term convertible notes that are secured by all of our assets (excluding our intellectual property), and include certain restrictive provisions, including limitations on incurring additional indebtedness and future dilutive issuances of securities, any of which could impair our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms. Future third-party funding arrangements may also require the Company to relinquish valuable rights. Additional capital, if available, may not be available on reasonable or non-dilutive terms.
Refer to Risk Factors in this prospectus for additional information.
New Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Recent Accounting Pronouncements in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and expense and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, management bases and evaluates estimates on historical experience and on various other market specific and other relevant assumptions believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ significantly from those estimates. We believe the following critical policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
Pre-launch Inventories
For inventories capitalized prior to FDA marketing approval in preparation of product launch, anticipated future sales, shelf-lives, and expected approval date are considered when evaluating realizability of pre-launch inventories. The shelf-life of a product is determined as part of the regulatory approval process; however, in assessing whether to capitalize pre-launch inventory the Company considers the stability data of all inventories. As inventories approach their shelf-life expiration, the Company may perform additional stability testing to determine if the inventory is still viable, which can result in an extension of its shelf-life. Further, in addition to performing additional stability testing, certain raw materials inventory may be sold in its then current condition prior to reaching expiration. We also consider potential delays associated with regulatory approval in determining whether pre-approval inventory remains salable. In determining whether pre-approval inventory remains salable, the Company considers a number of factors ranging from potential delays associated with regulatory approval, whether the introduction of a competing product could negatively impact the demand for our product and affect the realizability of our inventories, whether physicians would be willing to prescribe leronlimab to their patients, or if the target patient population would be willing to try leronlimab as a new therapy. See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
Stock-based compensation
We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of equity awards on the date of grant utilizing certain assumptions that require judgments and estimates. These assumptions include estimates for stock price volatility, expected term, and risk-free interest rates in determining the fair value of the equity awards. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the expected term of the equity award. The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock at monthly intervals. The computation of the expected option term is based on the “simplified method,” as the options issued by the Company are considered “plain vanilla” options. We estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise them, if necessary, in subsequent periods, if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We estimated future unvested forfeitures at 0% for all periods presented. Quarterly expense is reduced during the period when grants are forfeited, such that the full expense is recorded at the time of grant and only reduced when the grant is forfeited.
 
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We at times issue restricted common stock and/or restricted stock units to executives or third parties as compensation for services rendered. Such awards are valued at fair market value on the effective date of the Company’s obligation. From time to time, we also issue stock options and warrants to consultants as compensation for services. Costs for these transactions are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more readily measurable.
Contingent liabilities
We have significant license and contingent milestone and royalty liabilities. We estimate the likelihood of paying these contingent liabilities periodically based on the progress of our clinical trials, regulatory approval status, and status of commercialization. We are also party to various legal proceedings. We recognize accruals for such proceedings to the extent a loss is determined to be both probable and reasonably estimable. The best estimate of a loss within a possible range is accrued; however, if no estimate in the range is more probable than another, then the minimum amount in the range is accrued. If it is determined that a material loss is not probable but reasonably possible it is disclosed, and if the loss or range of loss can be estimated, the possible loss is also disclosed. It is not possible to determine the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, including the defense and other litigation-related costs and expenses that may be incurred by the Company, as the outcomes of legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and the outcomes could differ significantly from recognized accruals. Therefore, it is possible that the ultimate outcome of any proceeding, if in excess of a recognized accrual, or if an accrual had not been made, could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements. We periodically reassess these matters when additional information becomes available and adjust our estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances indicate the need for any changes. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies in the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.
 
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MANAGEMENT
Members of Our Board of Directors
The following table sets forth information about our current directors, including their current principal occupation or employment and age as of August 31, 2023:
Board committees
Director name
Age
Principal occupation
Independent
Audit
Compensation
Nom/Gov
Tanya D. Urbach, Board Chair
56
Partner, Eagle Bay Advisors
Yes
M
M
C
Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, M.D., Ph.D.
53
Professor, Immunology in Medicine and Neuroscience, Cornell University
Yes
M
Karen J. Brunke, Ph.D.
71
Executive Vice President, Corporate and Business Development, Jaguar Health, Inc. (NASDAQ: JAGX)
Yes
M
Ryan M. Dunlap
53
Chief Financial Officer, Gurobi Optimization
Yes
C
M
Stephen M. Simes
71
Independent advisor to companies and organizations in the pharmaceutical industry
Yes
M
C
C
indicates chair of respective board committee.
M
indicates member of respective board committee.
Tanya D. Urbach.   Ms. Urbach has been a director since November 24, 2021, and has served as our Board Chair since January 24, 2022. She is currently Partner/Head of Family Office for Eagle Bay Advisors, which provides family office and investment advisory services, and also provides corporate governance and corporate finance advice to Dynepic, Inc., which provides an integrated platform to power immersive training programs for companies and U.S. military forces. From November 2020 through March 31, 2021, Ms. Urbach was a sole practitioner advising broker-dealers, investment advisers and their professionals. From January 2019 through October 2020, she was a shareholder at the law firm Markun, Zusman, Freniere & Compton in Portland, Oregon. She served as General Counsel for Paulson Investment Company, LLC, a registered broker-dealer that provides investment banking services to the Company from time to time, from July 2015 until January 2019, providing advice regarding corporate governance, securities regulatory compliance, corporate finance, and other legal and securities-related issues. Ms. Urbach earned her bachelor’s degree at University of Oregon and her law degree at Lewis & Clark Law School. She served on the Executive Committee of the Oregon State Bar Securities Regulation Section from 2007 through 2015 and 2019 to 2021. She brings extensive training and expertise in the conduct of securities offerings, securities litigation, corporate finance and business growth, corporate governance, and other corporate business and legal issues to the Board.
Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, M.D., Ph.D.   Dr. Ndhlovu has been a director since November 24, 2021, and previously served on the Company’s Scientific Advisory Board. He was appointed to Weill Cornell Medicine in 2019 as Professor of Immunology in Medicine and Neuroscience. Before joining Weill Cornell Medicine, Dr. Ndhlovu was on the faculty at the University of Hawaii and University of California San Francisco from 2010 to 2019. As co-leader of the $26.5 million NIH-supported Martin Delaney Collaboratory, “HOPE”, testing novel approaches towards an HIV cure, and the $11 million “SCORCH” consortium, investigating how substances that can lead to addition modify effects of HIV in the brain, he is a recognized expert in basic and complex translational immunology and engineered immunotherapy research. He has focused much of his work on confronting the challenges of HIV and aging, addressing molecular mechanism of HIV pathogenesis, complications, and persistence. Dr. Ndhlovu received his M.D. from the University of Zambia and his Ph.D. from Tohoku University in Japan and is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of
 
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Microbiology and Chair of the American foundation for AIDS (amfAR) Research Scientific Advisory Committee. He brings a deep understanding of the central nervous system aspects of HIV and research expertise in major arenas in which the Company is studying its drug product to the Board.
Karen J. Brunke, Ph.D.   Dr. Brunke was appointed as a director effective April 1, 2022. Dr. Brunke has over 30 years of scientific, operational, clinical, senior executive, and corporate/business development managerial experience with large and small biotechnology companies. She is currently the Executive Vice President of Corporate and Business Development at Jaguar Health, Inc. (JAGX), a position she has held since September 2021, following seven months as an independent consultant to Jaguar. Jaguar is a commercial stage pharmaceuticals company focused on developing novel, sustainably derived gastrointestinal products on a global basis. As of January 2023, Dr. Brunke also serves as acting CEO of Magdalena Biosciences, Inc., a joint venture of Jaguar and Filament Health Corp (FH.NE and FLHLF) funded by OneSmallPlanet. During her career, Dr. Brunke has been a business development and strategy consultant to multiple companies and was instrumental in the initiation of several startup companies, including during the period from 2017 through 2020. Dr. Brunke was part of the executive team that merged Mercator Genetics Inc. with Progenitor, a subsidiary of Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, in 1999 and helped take the resulting company public. Dr. Brunke was Chief Operating Officer of Anexus Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of the Japanese public company MediBic, responsible for in- and out-licensing assistance for Japanese companies, from 2004 through June 2006, and was founding Chief Executive Officer of Cardeus Pharmaceuticals, a neuroscience company, from 2011 through March 2014. Dr. Brunke received her BA in Biochemistry as well as a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her many years of service in executive management, business development, operations, and corporate development roles at biotechnology companies will be of valuable assistance to the Board.
Ryan M. Dunlap.   Mr. Dunlap was appointed as a director effective August 24, 2022. Mr. Dunlap has over 25 years’ experience in finance and operations leadership, developing significant expertise in strategy setting, improving operational efficiency and effectiveness, fundraising and investor relations, financial reporting and compliance, and risk management. Mr. Dunlap joined Gurobi Optimization, a company that offers customers a mathematical optimization solver to address business problems, in October 2019. Prior to that, he was CFO beginning in January 2016, as well as COO beginning in December 2017, at MolecularMD (now ICON Specialty Labs), a growth equity-backed molecular diagnostics company. Mr. Dunlap also previously served as the CFO of Galena Biopharma, Inc., a publicly traded biotechnology and pharmaceutical sales company. Earlier in his career, Mr. Dunlap held various financial and operational leadership roles in large, multinational organizations, and spent 11 years with public accounting firms such as PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”), KPMG, and Moss Adams, where he provided business assurance and advisory services to both public and private companies predominately in the software, technology, and life sciences industries. Mr. Dunlap earned a B.S. degree in Accounting from the University of Oregon and is an active licensed CPA in the state of Oregon. His expertise as an “audit committee financial expert,” particularly in matters faced by the audit committee of a biotechnology company as well as his significant experience in executive management, finance, operations, and strategic planning, is of valuable assistance to the Board.
Stephen M. Simes.   Mr. Simes was appointed as a director effective October 13, 2022. Mr. Simes brings extensive experience to our Board through his service as CEO or a director of a number of pharmaceutical companies, both public and private. His career in the pharmaceutical industry started over 40 years ago with G.D. Searle & Co. (now a part of Pfizer Inc.). He has been an independent advisor to companies and organizations in the pharmaceutical industry since 2016 and is currently Entrepreneur in Residence at Helix 51 and the Innovation and Research Park of Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science in North Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Simes also serves as a director of BioLife4D Corporation, a private company developing a patient-specific, fully functioning human heart using 3D bioprinting and the patient’s own cells and currently preparing for an IPO. Mr. Simes is also chairman of the board of Bio-XL Limited, an Israeli company developing products in oncology. Mr. Simes was the CEO of RestorGenex Corporation from 2014 to 2016, when it was acquired by Diffusion Pharmaceuticals. From 1998 to 2013, Mr. Simes was the President and CEO of BioSante Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by ANI Pharmaceuticals Inc. in June 2013. He previously served on the boards of directors of Therapix Biosciences (2016 – 2020), RestorGenex Corporation (2014 – 2016), Ceregene, Inc. (2009 – 2013), BioSante Pharmaceuticals (1998 – 2013), Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1994 – 1997), Bio-Technology General
 
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(1993 – 1995), and Gynex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1989 – 1993). Stephen has a BSc in Chemistry from Brooklyn College of the City University of New York and an MBA from New York University. Simes brings substantial biotech experience to the board, including in the realms of corporate governance, executive management, operations, business development, drug development and capital markets. He also has substantial experience serving on boards of both privately owned and publicly traded entities.
Director Independence
We are not a “listed issuer” as that term is used in Regulation S-K Item 407 adopted by the SEC. However, in determining director independence, we use the definition of independence in Rule 5605(a)(2) and Rule 5605(c)(2) of the listing rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market (the “Nasdaq Rules”).
The Board has determined that all of our current directors are independent as defined in the Nasdaq Rules, including for purposes of membership on the Board’s Audit, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees, and that none of them otherwise has a relationship that, in the opinion of the Board, would interfere with their exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director. Scott A. Kelly, M.D., our former CMO, was also a director of the Company during fiscal year 2023 but was not independent due to his employment by the Company. See also “Principal Relationships and Related Person Transactions” below.
Executive Officers
Information about our current executive officers as of August 31, 2023 is set forth below:
Name
Age
Position
Antonio Migliarese 40 Interim President, Chief Financial Officer, and Treasurer
Tyler Blok 36 Executive Vice President of Legal Affairs and Secretary
Antonio Migliarese.   Mr. Migliarese has served as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer since May 18, 2021, and has also been serving as the Company’s Interim President since May 18, 2023. Mr. Migliarese has held various positions since joining the Company in January 2020, including Corporate Controller, from April 24, 2020 to December 16, 2020, Vice President, Corporate Controller, from December 16, 2020 until May 17, 2021, and Interim President from January 24, 2022 until July 9, 2022. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Migliarese was the Controller for Domaine Serene Vineyards and Winery, Inc., from 2018 to 2020, and Corporate Controller for Lightspeed Technologies, Inc., an R&D company and supplier of high-tech audio and video solutions to schools and similar organizations, from 2015 to 2018. Mr. Migliarese earned a B.S. degree in Accounting from Oregon State University, began his career in the assurance group of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”), and is a Certified Public Accountant.
Tyler Blok.   Mr. Blok has served as the Company’s legal counsel since July 25, 2022, and was appointed by the Board as Executive Vice President of Legal Affairs effective August 15, 2023. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Blok was an attorney at Buckley Law P.C., from 2021 to 2022, working in the firm’s business and transactional practice group, representing corporate clients in the mergers and acquisitions process, and advising business clients in relation to corporate governance matters. From 2013 to 2021, Mr. Blok worked at Markun Zusman Freniere & Compton LLP as both a law clerk and an attorney, later associating with TT&E Law Group LLP (2020 – 2021), where he represented various corporate clients in arbitration matters, complex commercial disputes, securities litigation, and regulatory examination and enforcement matters. Mr. Blok earned his bachelor’s degree at Western Oregon University and his law degree at Lewis & Clark Law School.
 
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EXECUTIVE AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION
The following tables provide information regarding the compensation awarded to, earned by, or paid to Cyrus Arman, Ph.D., who served as President and principal executive officer (“PEO”) during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, Antonio Migliarese, our Chief Financial Officer, who also served as PEO (Interim President) during fiscal year 2023, and two other individuals who served as executive officers during fiscal year 2023, Scott A. Kelly, M.D., and Nitya G. Ray, Ph.D. We refer to these four individuals as our “named executive officers.” Other executive officers who served during fiscal year 2023 received total compensation less than the amounts paid or awarded to our named executive officers.
Summary Compensation Table
The table below sets forth information regarding the compensation of our named executive officers for our fiscal years ended May 31, 2023 and 2022.
Name and Principal Position(1)
Year
Salary
($)(2)
Bonus
($)(3)
Stock
awards
($)(4)
Stock
option
awards
($)(5)
Non-equity
incentive plan
compensation
($)(6)
All other
compensation
($)(7)
Total ($)
Cyrus Arman, Ph.D.,
President
2023 394,700 375,000 750,000 8,711 1,528,411
Antonio Migliarese
Chief Financial Officer
2023 428,418 1,318,800 10,065 1,757,283
2022 433,182 1,302,000 12,347 1,747,529
Scott A. Kelly, M.D.
Chief Medical Officer
2023 299,822 665,920 2,227 967,969
2022 585,001 1,877,750 16,636 2,479,387
Nitya G. Ray, Ph.D.
Chief Technology Officer
2023 249,375 2,588 251,963
2022 497,656 27,345 501,000 14,390 1,040,931
(1)
Dr. Arman was appointed President on July 9, 2022 and was on medical leave beginning May 18, 2023 through July 6, 2023, when he resigned from that position. He was appointed as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Business Operations, a part time, nonexecutive position, effective July 7, 2023. Mr. Migliarese also served as Interim President from January 24, 2022 through July 9, 2022, and has been serving in that position since May 18, 2023. Dr. Kelly resigned from his position on December 19, 2022, and Dr. Ray resigned from his position on November 21, 2022.
(2)
Beginning March 31, 2022 through November 30, 2022 (November 15, 2022, in the case of Dr. Ray), 25% of the salaries of each of Mr. Migliarese, Dr. Kelly, and Dr. Ray were paid in the form of shares of common stock instead of cash. The amounts reflecting the value of shares of common stock included in the Salary column in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022, respectively, were as follows: Mr. Migliarese, $51,875 and $21,615; Dr. Kelly, $70,854 and $30,470; and Dr. Ray, $89,010 and $27,343. In September 2022, Mr. Migliarese’s salary was increased by $25,000 in recognition of his dual service as CFO and Interim President from January 24, 2022, until July 9, 2022, resulting in additional salary awarded for services in fiscal 2023 and 2022 of $18,182 and $6,818, respectively.
(3)
No bonuses were awarded for services in fiscal year 2022 or 2023.
(4)
The amount shown for stock awards represents the aggregate grant date fair value of an award of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to Dr. Arman in 2023. The RSUs were scheduled to vest in four equal annual installments, subject to continued employment through the applicable vesting date. Awards subject to performance conditions (“PSUs”) that were made to Dr. Arman in fiscal year 2023 were deemed to have zero fair value based on the probable outcome of the performance conditions on the grant date. The value of the PSUs at the grant date, assuming the performance conditions were met at the maximum level (100%), was $375,000. In connection with Dr. Arman’s appointment as Senior Vice President, Business Operations as of July 7, 2023, the RSUs and PSUs were forfeited.
(5)
Stock option awards represent the aggregate grant date fair value of the awards pursuant to ASC 718, as described in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus.
 
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(6)
No non-equity incentive plan compensation was paid to the named executive officers for services in fiscal years 2022 or 2023.
(7)
Represents our qualified non-elective contributions to the Company’s 401(k) employee savings plan. The total value of all personal benefits received by any named executive officer in fiscal years 2022 and 2023 was less than $10,000.
Outstanding Equity Awards at 2023 Fiscal Year-End
The table below sets forth information regarding the equity awards held by our named executive officers on May 31, 2023.
Name
Number of
securities
underlying
unexercised
options (#)
exercisable
Number of
securities
underlying
unexercised
options (#)
unexercisable
Option
exercise
price ($)
Option
expiration
date
Number of
shares or
units of
stock that
have not
vested (#)(1)
Value of
shares or
units of
stock that
have not
vested ($)(2)
Number of
unearned
shares or
units of
stock
that have not
vested (#)(3)
Value of
unearned
shares or
units of
stock
that have not
vested ($)(2)
Cyrus Arman, Ph.D.
1,575,557(4) $ 0.58 9/20/2032
646,552 168,104
646,552 168,104
Antonio Migliarese
50,000 $ 1.03 1/16/2030
50,000 $ 1.10 2/21/2030
66,600 33,400(5) $ 5.57 7/22/2030
33,300 16,700(6) $ 5.54 2/17/2031
333,000 667,000(7) $ 1.32 8/6/2031
210,074 420,148(8) $ 0.58 9/20/2032
1,146,384 3,439,152(9) $ 0.35 11/28/2032
Scott A. Kelly, M.D.
Nitya G. Ray, Ph.D.
Note: All awards in the table are subject to forfeiture in the event Continuous Service, as the term is defined in our Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2012 Plan”), terminates prior to the applicable vesting date.
(1)
Represents awards of RSUs scheduled to vest in four equal annual installments beginning on July 9, 2023. The RSUs were forfeited as of July 7, 2023, in connection with Dr. Arman’s appointment as Senior Vice President, Business Operations.
(2)
Based on the closing sale price of the common stock on May 31, 2023, the last trading day of the Company’s 2023 fiscal year, of $0.26 per share.
(3)
Represents PSUs, the vesting of which is contingent on the achievement of performance goals, as determined by and at the sole discretion of the Compensation Committee. In accordance with the SEC executive compensation disclosure rules, the amounts reported are based on the individual achieving the target performance goals. The PSUs were forfeited as of July 7, 2023, in connection with Dr. Arman’s appointment as Senior Vice President, Business Operations.
(4)
In connection with Dr. Arman’s appointment as Senior Vice President, Business Operations, vesting of the options was accelerated as follows: 630,222 shares vested on July 7, 2023, and the balance will vest in six equal monthly installments beginning on August 9, 2023.
(5)
Vests on July 22, 2023.
(6)
Vests on February 17, 2024.
(7)
Vests in two equal annual installments on August 6, 2023 and 2024.
(8)
Vests in 32 equal monthly installments beginning on June 30, 2023.
 
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(9)
Vests in 36 equal monthly installments beginning on June 30, 2023.
Additional Information Regarding our Executive Compensation Program
Executive Compensation Policies and Procedures
Our Company believes that our executive compensation program should be designed to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified executives by paying them competitively and rewarding and encouraging individual and superior company performance, on both a short- and long-term basis, thereby aligning our executives’ behavior with long-term stockholder interests. The Board’s Compensation Committee is tasked with reviewing compensation policies and practices applicable to all executive officers. Effective July 2, 2021, the Compensation Committee adopted a written policy regarding executive compensation to govern the committee in making its determinations and fulfilling its responsibilities. Under the policy, the Compensation Committee will:

be composed of at least three members who are independent directors as provided under the Nasdaq Rules or rules of another applicable national securities exchange on which the Company’s stock is listed;

select and engage one or more independent compensation advisors and receive written recommendations from such advisors to assist the Compensation Committee in determining types and levels of compensation for executive officers and non-employee directors on an annual basis;

assess the compensation levels and composition of the Company’s peer group annually, based on factors the Compensation Committee deems relevant after discussion with its independent compensation advisor(s), and consider for selection as peers, as deemed appropriate by the Compensation Committee, companies that are operating in the same industries as the Company and have similar market capitalization;

consider and approve the compensation of the Company’s executive officers annually, including the criteria upon which executive compensation is based, the specific relationship of corporate performance to executive compensation, and the composition of executive compensation in terms of base salary, deferred compensation, performance-based compensation, equity-based compensation, and other benefits to be provided to executive officers; this decision-making process will occur once per year, including evaluation of the achievement of goals for the most recent performance period(s) and establishment of goals for the ensuing performance period(s);

consider and approve the annual compensation for non-employee directors for each fiscal year, including cash retainers for service as directors and as members of Board committees, equity-based compensation, and other benefits to be provided to non-employee directors; and

refrain from recommending or approving bonuses to non-employee directors based on Company performance.
The policy expressly permits the Compensation Committee to make decisions regarding executive or director compensation in connection with the addition of new directors, the hiring of new executive officers or promotion of existing executive officers, and other circumstances that are, in the judgment of the Compensation Committee, exceptional. All decisions of the Compensation Committee are reported to our Board.
Role of Independent Compensation Consultant
The Compensation Committee has the sole authority and responsibility to select, retain, and terminate its independent compensation advisors and to approve their fees and terms of engagement. In June 2022, the Compensation Committee retained Aon/Radford (“Aon”) as its independent compensation consultant. The Compensation Committee selected Aon in part due to its experience in developing comparative compensation analyses by industry. Aon was asked to refresh the Company’s peer group for compensation comparison purposes, to provide comparative information regarding executive compensation at peer companies, and to assist in designing the Company’s executive compensation program for fiscal year 2023.
 
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The peer group approved by the Compensation Committee in June 2022 was composed of 22 pre-revenue, publicly traded companies with one to five drugs under development and located in biotech hubs throughout the United States.
Base Salaries
The Compensation Committee determined base salaries for the named executive officers for fiscal year 2023 based on a variety of factors, including salary levels in the competitive labor market and for similar positions at companies in the Company’s peer group, individual performance, job responsibilities, and tenure with the Company, as well as prior experience, economic conditions facing the Company, and retention. The Compensation Committee also solicited input from Dr. Arman shortly after he joined the Company as President with respect to the compensation of the other named executive officers and took his recommendations into consideration.
Based on comparative compensation information provided by Aon/Radford in June 2022, the Compensation Committee fixed base salaries for the Company’s named executive officers for fiscal year 2023 as follows: Dr. Kelly, $450,000, a decrease of approximately 23% compared to fiscal year 2022; Mr. Migliarese, $421,600, an increase of approximately 2% compared to fiscal year 2022; and Dr. Ray, $525,000, unchanged from fiscal year 2022. Dr. Arman’s base salary, pursuant to his employment agreement dated July 9, 2022, was $458,000.
In March 2022, in order to conserve cash resources, the Compensation Committee first authorized the payment of 25% of executive salaries in the form of shares of common stock. Dr. Kelly and Mr. Migliarese received 25% of their salaries in shares, in lieu of cash, through November 30, 2022, and Dr. Ray through November 15, 2022.
Annual Cash Incentive Plan
Annual cash incentives are paid based on the Compensation Committee’s determinations regarding the satisfaction of corporate or individual performance goals, if any, established by the committee and the committee’s evaluation of the individual performance of each executive officer in its sole discretion. For fiscal year 2023, the Compensation Committee approved the target level of annual cash incentives for each named executive officer, expressed as a percentage, at 40% of each executive’s base salary. In August 2023, the Compensation Committee determined that no bonuses or cash incentive payments would be paid to the named executive officers for services during fiscal year 2023.
Long-Term Equity Incentives
We provide long-term incentives to our named executive officers under the 2012 Plan. For fiscal years 2023 and 2022, equity awards were granted based on advice from Aon/Radford regarding the predominant practices of pre-revenue biotech companies.
For fiscal year 2023, the Compensation Committee granted nonqualified stock options to Dr. Arman and Mr. Migliarese. The stock options provided for vesting ratably over the four-year period ending on June 30, 2026. In connection with Dr. Arman’s appointment as Senior Vice President, Business Operations, the vesting schedule for his award was later amended as follows: 630,222 shares vested on July 7, 2023, and the balance will vest in six equal monthly installments beginning on August 9, 2023. During fiscal year 2023, the Compensation Committee also granted Dr. Arman, pursuant to his employment agreement executed in July 2022, awards of RSUs and PSUs that were subsequently forfeited in conjunction with his acceptance of a nonexecutive position in July 2023 upon his return from medical leave.
Stock options provide our executives with opportunities for financial gain derived from the potential appreciation in stock price from the date the option is granted until the date the option is exercised. Stock options are granted to executives with an exercise price equal to or above the closing sale price of our common stock on the OTCQB on the grant date. Our long-term performance ultimately determines the value of stock options, because gains from stock option exercises are entirely dependent on long-term appreciation in the price of our common stock. As a result, we believe stock options encourage our executives and other employees to focus on creating shareholder value. Nonqualified stock options do not provide holders
 
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with the tax advantages afforded to holders of incentive stock options under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended; rather, they benefit the Company by permitting it to deduct compensation expense for tax purposes when options are exercised in an amount equal to the compensation income recognized by the option holder.
Employee Pension, Profit Sharing or Other Retirement Plans
Effective January 1, 2010, we adopted an employee savings plan pursuant to Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “401(k) Plan”) and covering substantially all employees. We make “safe harbor” qualified non-elective contributions, which vest immediately, equal to 3% of each participant’s salary, up to the maximum limit permitted under Section 401(k). In addition, participants in the 401(k) Plan may contribute a percentage of their compensation, up to the maximum limit under the Internal Revenue Code. We do not have any other defined benefit pension plan, profit sharing or retirement plan.
Employment Agreements
We entered into an employment agreement with each of the named executive officers listed in the Summary Compensation Table above. The employment agreements provide for an indefinite term of employment until terminated under the terms of the agreement, payment of a base salary (as adjusted by the Compensation Committee from time to time), a target bonus under the Company’s short-term incentive plan described below, equity awards under the 2012 Plan (or any successor plan) as determined by the Compensation Committee, and benefits generally made available to the Company’s senior leadership.
The employment agreement with Dr. Arman in effect as of May 31, 2023, provided for an initial annual base salary of $458,000, as well as an initial grant of nonqualified stock options with a grant date fair value of $750,000, and awards of RSUs and PSUs, each with a grant date fair value of $375,000. Effective July 7, 2023, the Board appointed Dr. Arman as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Business Operations, a part time, nonexecutive position. In connection with the change in position, the Company and Dr. Arman entered into an agreement pursuant to which his prior employment agreement was terminated, his annual salary level was reduced to $300,000, and the RSUs and PSUs granted under the terms of his prior employment agreement were forfeited. The stock option granted to Dr. Arman to purchase 1,575,557 shares of common stock was amended to provide for vesting of 40% of the award on July 7, 2023, and the balance in six equal monthly installments beginning August 9, 2023, subject to Continuous Service through the applicable vesting date.
Our executive officers are eligible to participate in our short- and long-term incentive plans, with a target annual bonus equal to a percentage or range of percentages of annual base salary, as set by the Compensation Committee. The actual amount of the target awards paid is based on the Compensation Committee’s evaluation of the level of achievement of related performance goals or individual performance and are payable, as determined by the Compensation Committee, either in cash in full, or 50% in cash and 50% in unrestricted shares of common stock. The executive must remain actively employed by the Company through the date of a cash incentive payment to be entitled to payment.
The employment agreements with Dr. Ray and Dr. Kelly terminated upon their resignation as an executive officer on November 21 and December 19, 2022, respectively. Neither Dr. Ray nor Dr. Kelly received any severance payments in connection with their resignation.
Payments upon Termination of Employment, Death or Disability, or Change in Control
Under our employment agreement with Mr. Migliarese, in the event we terminate his employment without cause, and subject to his execution and non-revocation of a release of claims and continued compliance with certain restrictive covenants, Mr. Migliarese will be entitled to (x) a lump sum payment equal to the sum of three months of base salary plus (y) payments equal to nine months of base salary payable in regular installments corresponding with the Company’s regular payroll schedule. The payments may, in the discretion of the Compensation Committee, be made in whole or in part through the issuance of shares of common stock. The total payments may not exceed the maximum amount qualified for the exemption from Section 409A of the Internal Revenue Code governing deferred compensation (the “Severance Limit”). Also, all outstanding and unvested stock awards that had been granted as of May 18, 2021, the effective
 
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date of his employment agreement, will vest and (if applicable) become immediately exercisable upon such termination, except as otherwise provided in an award agreement, while awards granted after that date generally will be forfeited to the extent not vested prior to such termination.
In the event we terminate the employment of Mr. Migliarese without cause, or he resigns for good reason, within 12 months following a change in control, and subject to his execution and non-revocation of a release of claims, his employment agreement provides for a lump sum payment equal to the sum of 18 months of base salary; provided that the total of such payments may not exceed the Severance Limit. Also, all then outstanding and unvested stock awards generally will vest as of the change in control date and (if applicable) become immediately exercisable, unless otherwise provided in an award agreement.
The definitions of certain terms used in Mr. Migliarese’s employment agreement are summarized below:
“Cause” generally means fraudulent or similar acts intended to enrich the executive personally to the detriment or at the expense of the Company; willful and continued failure to perform the duties or obligations reasonably assigned to the executive; a material breach of the confidentiality or non-competition provisions of the employment agreement; and conviction of a felony.
“Good reason” generally means a material reduction in the executive’s authority, duties, or responsibilities; a material decrease in the executive’s base salary (with certain exceptions); a material breach of the employment agreement by the Company; or a relocation of his principal place of employment by a distance of more than 50 miles.
“Change in control” generally means the acquisition by a person or group of more than 50% of the total fair market value or total voting power of our outstanding stock; the replacement of a majority of the members of the Board during any 12-month period (unless endorsed by a majority of the existing directors); or the acquisition by a person or group of assets representing at least 40% of the total gross fair market value of our assets.
Upon an executive’s death or disability, the Company will satisfy its accrued obligations to pay the executive’s salary and benefits through the date of the event.
Director Compensation
During fiscal year 2023, our non-employee director compensation program provided for: (i) $40,000 in annual cash retainer; (ii) an additional annual cash retainer of $30,000 for service as Lead Independent Director or independent Board Chair, (iii) additional annual cash retainers for committee chairs equal to $20,000 for the Audit Committee, $15,000 for the Compensation Committee, and $10,000 for the Nominating and Governance Committee, (iv) annual cash retainers for committee members of $10,000 for the Audit Committee, $7,500 for the Compensation Committee, and $5,000 for the Nominating and Governance Committee, and (v) an annual grant of a non-qualified stock option with a grant date fair value of $100,000 and a 10-year term and vesting in equal monthly installments through the end of the applicable fiscal year. Ryan M. Dunlap and Stephen M. Simes were appointed to the Board after May 31, 2022, and therefore received pro-rated compensation for fiscal year 2023.
The table below sets forth certain information regarding the compensation earned by or awarded to each non-employee director for services during fiscal year 2023:
Name of non-employee director
Cash fees
Stock option
awards(1)(2)
Total
Tanya D. Urbach(3)
$ 100,389 $ 100,000 $ 200,389
Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, M.D., Ph.D.
$ 52,748 $ 100,000 $ 152,748
Karen J. Brunke, Ph.D.
$ 62,077 $ 100,000 $ 162,077
Ryan M. Dunlap(4)
$ 47,703 $ 75,000 $ 122,703
Stephen M. Simes(4)
$ 34,180 $ 62,500 $ 96,680
 
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(1)
Stock option awards represent the grant date fair value of the awards pursuant to Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”), as described in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus, to which reference is hereby made.
(2)
The total shares of common stock underlying stock options held by the non-employee directors as of May 31, 2023 are shown in the table below:
Name of non-employee director
Number of shares underlying
outstanding stock option awards
Tanya D. Urbach
359,611
Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, M.D., Ph.D.
459,611
Karen J. Brunke, Ph.D.
284,611
Ryan M. Dunlap
185,334
Stephen M. Simes
178,012
(3)
Cash fees include annual fees for service as independent Board Chair.
(4)
Mr. Dunlap was appointed to the Board on August 25, 2022. Mr. Simes was appointed to the Board on October 13, 2022.
 
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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS
We describe below each transaction or series of similar transactions, since June 1, 2021, to which we were a party or will be a party, in which:

the amounts involved exceeded or may exceed $120,000; and

any of our directors, executive officers or holders of more than 5% of our capital stock, or any member of the immediate family of the foregoing persons, at any time since June 1, 2021, had or will have a direct or indirect material interest.
The Audit Committee of the Board reviews and approves all related party transactions in accordance with the Company’s Related Party Transactions Policy, which is available on our website, www.cytodyn.com/investors. Generally, it is the Company’s policy to enter into or ratify related party transactions only when the Board, acting through the Audit Committee, determines that the transaction in question is in, or is not inconsistent with, the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. Specifically, when reviewing a related party transaction, the Audit Committee considers all relevant factors, including but not limited to (if and to the extent possible): the benefits to the Company; the impact on a director’s independence in the event the related party is a director, an immediate family member of a director or an entity in which a director is a partner, stockholder or executive officer; the availability of other sources for comparable products or services; the terms of the transaction; and the terms available to unrelated third parties or to employees generally. We believe the terms of the related party transactions described below were comparable to terms we could have obtained in arm’s length dealings with unrelated third parties.
The Center for Advanced Research & Education, LLC (“CARE”), owned by Julie Recknor, Ph.D., the spouse of Dr. Christopher Recknor, was one of several clinical locations for the Company’s NASH and COVID-19 long-hauler clinical trials, and was a clinical location for the Company’s completed Phase 2b/3 mild-to-moderate and severe-to-critical COVID-19 clinical trials. Dr. Julie Recknor serves as the Site Director of CARE and manages its day-to-day operations. The Company entered into a Clinical Trial Agreement (“CTA”) with CARE for each of these clinical trials. Each CTA was negotiated in the ordinary course of business by Amarex, the Company’s former CRO, prior to Dr. Christopher Recknor’s appointment as an executive officer of the Company, and the operational and financial terms of the CTA with CARE were comparable to the terms available to unrelated clinical locations. Dr. Christopher Recknor was not involved in the Company’s decision to choose CARE as a clinical location for its ongoing trials or in patient recruitment at the CARE site. The Company made payments totaling approximately $1.7 million and $0.2 million to CARE during the fiscal years ended May 31, 2022 and 2023, respectively.
On September 23, 2021, Jordan G. Naydenov, then a director of the Company, entered into a private warrant exchange in which he exercised warrants to purchase common stock at $0.90 and $1.50 per share in lieu of the stated exercise price on the original warrants of $0.45 and $0.75 per share, respectively. Mr. Naydenov purchased a total of 644,444 shares of common stock, as well as 644,444 additional shares as an inducement to exercise his warrants, for a total of 1,288,888 shares of common stock. The terms and conditions of Mr. Naydenov’s investment totaling approximately $700,000 were identical to those offered to other investors.
On February 14, 2022, the Company entered into a Surety Bond Backstop Agreement (the “Backstop Agreement”) with David F. Welch, Ph.D., in his individual capacity and as trustee of a revocable trust, as well as certain other related parties (collectively, the “Indemnitors”). Pursuant to the Backstop Agreement, the Indemnitors agreed to assist the Company in obtaining a surety bond (the “Surety Bond”) for posting in connection with the Company’s ongoing litigation with its former contract research organization, Amarex, by, among other things, agreeing to indemnify the issuer of the Surety Bond (the “Surety”) with respect to the Company’s obligations under the Surety Bond. As a result of two amendments to the Backstop Agreement executed in July and December of 2022, the Indemnitors’ agreement to indemnify the Surety was extended until April 2023. As consideration for the Indemnitors’ obligations under the Backstop Agreement, including the amendments, the Company issued the Backstop Warrants to entities controlled by Dr. Welch to purchase a total of 45,000,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $0.10 per share. The warrants are fully exercisable and will expire at various dates in 2027 and 2028. Upon the issuance of the final two warrants to purchase a total of 15,000,000 shares in February 2023, Dr. Welch was deemed to beneficially own in excess of five percent of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock.
 
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The payment obligations of the Company to the Indemnitors bore interest at 10% per annum and were secured by substantially all of the patents held by the Company. In March 2023, as required by and in connection with the extension of the Backstop Agreement, the Company relieved the Indemnitors of the remaining $1.4 million of cash collateral pledged by the Indemnitors in support of the Surety Bond. Subsequently, the Indemnitors were fully released from their indemnification obligations, they released their security interest in the Company’s patents securing the Company’s obligations under the Backstop Agreement, and the Company fully assumed the Surety Bond. The shares underlying the warrants are included in the shares registered for resale pursuant to this prospectus. See “Selling Stockholders” for more information.
On February 13, 2023, Dr. Arman, the Company’s then President, purchased approximately 0.4 million units consisting of one share of common stock and one warrant to purchase one share of common stock from the Company at an exercise price of $0.50. The terms and conditions of Dr. Arman’s investment totaling $0.1 million were identical to those offered to other investors in a private placement through a placement agent that ended in April 2023.
 
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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT
The following table sets forth the beneficial ownership of common stock as of September 11, 2023, by (i) beneficial owners of more than 5 percent of our outstanding shares of common stock; (ii) each of our directors; (iii) each of our named executive officers; and (iv) our current executive officers and directors as a group.
Name and Address of Beneficial Owner(1)
Amount and Nature of
Beneficial Ownership(2)
Percent of
Total(3)
Beneficial owners of more than 5 percent:
David F. Welch Ph.D(4)
50,919,899 5.2%
Directors and Named Executive Officers:
A. Cyrus Arman, Ph.D.(5)
2,024,972 *
Antonio Migliarese(6)
2,983,272 *
Tyler Blok(7)
73,167 *
Scott A. Kelly, M.D.(8)
1,116,408 *
Nitya G. Ray, Ph.D.
351,545 *
Karen J. Brunke, Ph.D.(9)
284,611 *
Ryan C. Dunlap(9)
185,334 *
Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, M.D., Ph.D.(9)
459,611 *
Stephen M. Simes(9)
178,012 *
Tanya Durkee Urbach(10)
521,724 *
Current directors and executive officers as a group (8 persons)(11)
6,710,703 *
*
Less than 1% of the outstanding shares of common stock.
(1)
The business address of David Welch is 217 Camino Al Lago, Atherton, California 94027.
(2)
Beneficial ownership includes shares of common stock as to which a person or group has sole or shared voting power or investment power. Beneficial ownership also includes shares subject to stock options, warrants, or other rights to acquire shares that are exercisable currently or within 60 days following September 11, 2023; such shares are deemed outstanding for purposes of computing the number of shares beneficially owned and percentage ownership of the person or group holding such stock options, warrants or other rights, but are not deemed outstanding for purposes of computing the percentage of any other person. Unless otherwise stated, numbers represent shares of common stock.
(3)
Percentages are based on 930,960,097 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 11, 2023.
(4)
Includes: (i) 632,654 shares subject to stock options held by Dr. Welch directly; (ii) 624,220 shares and 1,000 shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock convertible into 1,250,000 shares held by a limited liability company for which Dr. Welch is the managing member and has voting and dispositive power; and (iii) 7,163,025 shares and warrants covering 41,250,000 shares held by trusts for which Dr. Welch, as trustee, has voting and dispositive power.
(5)
Includes: (i) a warrant covering 434,782 shares; and (ii) 1,155,408 shares subject to stock options.
(6)
Includes 2,800,065 shares subject to stock options.
(7)
Includes: (i) 72,917 shares subject to stock options; and (ii) 250 shares held by Mr. Blok’s spouse.
(8)
Includes: (i) a warrant covering 500,000 shares; and (ii) 616,408 shares held by Dr. Kelly’s spouse.
(9)
Represents shares subject to stock options.
(10)
Includes 359,611 shares subject to stock options.
(11)
Includes 5,495,569 shares subject to stock options and 434,782 shares subject to warrants.
 
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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS
When we refer to the “selling stockholders” in this prospectus, we mean the persons or entities specifically identified in the table below, as well as the permitted transferees, pledgees, donees, assignees, successors and other successors-in-interest who may subsequently hold any of the selling stockholders’ interests other than through a public sale.
The table below sets forth information concerning the resale of our shares by the selling stockholders. The total number of common shares sold under this prospectus may be adjusted to reflect adjustments due to stock dividends, stock distributions, splits, combinations or recapitalizations with regard to the common stock. Unless otherwise stated below in the footnotes, to our knowledge, neither the selling stockholders, nor any affiliate of such stockholders, has held any position or office with us during the three years prior to the date of this prospectus.
We have registered 75,012,484 shares of our common stock and 130,749,059 shares underlying outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock for resale by the selling stockholders named below. We will not receive any of the proceeds of sales by the selling stockholders of any of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus. However, if all of the warrants covered by this prospectus are exercised for cash, we may receive proceeds of up to approximately $45.2 million, as further described in “Use of Proceeds.”
Set forth below are the names of the selling stockholders and the amount and percentage of common stock beneficially owned by each of the selling stockholders (including shares which the stockholders have the right to acquire within 60 days of April 30, 2023) prior to the offering, the shares to be sold in the offering, and the amount and percentage of common stock to be owned by each (including shares which the stockholders have the right to acquire within 60 days of April 30, 2023) after the offering assuming all shares are sold. The footnotes provide information about persons who have voting and dispositive power with respect to shares held by the selling stockholders.
The amounts and information set forth below are based upon information the Company received from the selling stockholders, and/or Company records. The selling stockholders may sell all or some of the shares of common stock they are offering, and may sell, unless indicated otherwise in the footnotes below, shares of our common stock otherwise than pursuant to this prospectus. The table below assumes that the selling stockholders sell all of the shares offered by them in offerings pursuant to this prospectus and do not acquire any additional shares. We are unable to determine the exact number of shares that will actually be sold or when or if these sales will occur.
Name of Stockholder
Shares
Beneficially
Owned
Pre-Offering(1)
% Owned
Pre-Offering(2)
Common Stock
Offered in this
Offering
Warrant
Shares
Number of
Shares
Post-Offering
% of Shares
Post-Offering(2)
David F. Welch & Heidi A. Welch Trust u/a dtd 04/03/1996(3)
50,919,899 5% 3,000,000 41,000,000 7,919,899 *
Aaron Lehmann
173,912 * 86,956 86,956 *
Adeel Shahid
1,011,640 * 250,000 250,000 511,640 *
Adolfo & Donna Carmona
1,784,268 * 434,782 434,782 914,704 *
Alexander & Donna Tosi
3,994,970 * 434,782 434,782 3,125,406 *
Angus J. Bruce
344,347 * 86,956 86,956 170,435 *
Anh Nguyen
2,337,133 * 217,391 217,391 1,902,351 *
Ann C. Darda
999,116 * 217,391 217,391 564,334 *
Anthony & Angela Reed Family Trust dtd 05-30-2002
524,387 * 65,217 65,217 393,953 *
Aronow Capital, LLC(4)
6,451,061 * 1,086,956 1,086,956 4,277,149 *
Ashok & Harshida Patel
935,514 * 217,391 217,391 500,732 *
Barak Engel
317,390 * 108,695 108,695 100,000 *
Baron S. Lonner
1,788,899 * 217,391 217,391 1,354,117 *
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Name of Stockholder
Shares
Beneficially
Owned
Pre-Offering(1)
% Owned
Pre-Offering(2)